UML diagrams are area it all comes together. As I already mentioned, in the UML there is no academic way of bonds or absolute a diagram (that is, no notation for the diagram itself), so there are no relationships between diagrams. Instead, diagrams are the graphical presentation cartage for aspects of a model. They don’t angle alone, but are meant to be allotment of the textual narrative that provides the archetypal specification.
The UML accurately includes nine altered diagrams in its documentation, which I’ll altercate briefly here. However, these diagram types are process-dependent and suggestive, rather than prescriptive. The UML allows the modeler to amalgamate any and all elements into diagrams, depending on the modeling needs at hand. In practice, of course, alone assertive combinations of elements are sensible, and these nine types are appealing abundant the “canonical” ones for acquisitive programming.
However, all of this absolutely needs to be advised in the ambience of the process and the apparatus actuality used. Although the RUP includes all of these diagrams, D’Souza and Wills’ book (for example) doesn’t.
Detailing these diagrams and the alternatives can be a book by itself. Most of the abstract on the UML focuses on these diagrams, so there are already many acceptable books to accept from. Because this book is as process-independent as the UML, I’ll leave abundant discussions of these diagrams to the many other added programming-oriented, books out there and to come.
For acceptable acquisitive development, the chic diagram is the keystone for the arrangement model. In UML terms, it is a appearance of the static structural model. It is not a academic administration of the model; therefore, alone chic diagrams “do not represent capacity in the underlying model” (Rational Software Corporation 1999, 3-33).
Aside from classes, a chic diagram can additionally accommodate interfaces, packages, relationships, and instances (such as altar and links). The UML Specification suggests that “a bigger name would be static structural diagram,” but bows to attitude and brevity in afraid with class diagram (1999).
The UML recognizes the acumen amid chic and type; the nature of what is meant by chic changes conceptually, depending on the development date that the clay accomplishment is in. For those interested, Martin Fowler, Kendall Scott, and Ivar Jacobson do an admirable job of capturing and explaining the clay nuances of class, blazon and article in UML Distilled: Applying the Standard Article Clay Language (Fowler, Scott, and Jacobson 1997).
For use case-driven development, the use case diagram is the keystone of the clay effort. Use case diagrams appearance actors and use cases, together with their relationships. These accommodate the following:
Associations amid the actors and the use cases
Generalizations amid the actors
Generalizations, extends, and includes relationships among the use cases
The use cases may be amid by a rectangle to appearance the aals of the containing system, and so on. As will be axiomatic in the UML patterns, use case diagrams by themselves are about trivial. The absolute actuality of a use case is in the argument (narrative).
A use case captures the cogent genitalia of an alternation with the system or some allotment of the arrangement by the actor(s) defining the scope, context, and requirements. Use cases can be acclimated in a array of means throughout the development accomplishment (for example, as the base for ambience up the test environment and as a starting point for a user manual).
The afterward is an archetype of a basal use case, which describes authoritative a buzz call, in argument architectonics aboriginal and again the diagram (see Figure 3.29). The addition initiates the use case, and the receiver is a accessory actor. The arrangement that the addition and amateur collaborate with is, of course, the buzz system. The alternating flows aren’t absolutely described, but announce the affectionate of altitude that alternating flows handle.
The use case begins back Addition picks up the handset of telephone.
The use case ends back Addition hangs up phone.
Figure 3.29 Blast alarm use case diagram.
Interaction diagrams are acclimated in the activating clay of the system. There are two kinds: arrangement diagrams and accord diagrams.
A arrangement diagram shows an alternation abiding in time sequence: the objects (not classes) and the letters that canyon amid them back an interaction occurs. These are what Ivar Jacobson acclimated to alarm interaction diagrams.
A arrangement diagram has a annual of accommodating altar beyond its top, apparent as rectangles. Anniversary article rectangle contains at atomic a name, consistently accent to announce that the rectangle is an article and not a class. Below anniversary article rectangle, apparent with a dotted line, is the article lifeline, the time-ordered beheld framework for bulletin exchanges amid the altar (and with the system). A attenuated vertical rectangle alleged the activation represents the aeon of time an article is absolutely assuming an action (directly or through an intermediary, such as addition object). Article letters arise as arrows with a argument description. Figure 3.30 shows the basal elements of a arrangement diagram.
Figure 3.30 Simple arrangement diagram.
A accord diagram additionally shows the casual of letters between objects, but focuses on the altar and letters and their adjustment instead of the time sequence. The arrangement of interactions and the circumstantial accoutrement are identified application arrangement numbers. A accord diagram shows an interaction organized about the roles in the alternation and their links to anniversary other, and shows the relationships amid the altar arena the altered roles. The UML Blueprint suggests that accord diagrams are bigger for real-time blueprint and for circuitous scenarios than arrangement diagrams.
Figure 3.31 shows the blast alarm archetype bidding as a accord diagram.
Figure 3.31 Accord diagram assuming changeless anatomy of altar and letters abounding amid them.
State diagrams appearance the states, events, transitions, and activities for the system, depicted as accompaniment machines. They’re allotment of dynamic modeling rather than structural modeling. They are acclimated to call the behavior of a archetypal aspect such as an article or an interaction, describing ”possible sequences of states and accomplishments through which the aspect can proceed during its lifetime as a aftereffect of reacting to detached contest (for example, signals, operation invocations)” (Rational Software Corporation 1999, 3-131).
The official name in the UML is statechart diagram, but state diagram ancestor up all over the abode in the UML Blueprint and in much of the literature. The appellation statechart reflects its origins in Harel Statecharts, a long-used apparatus for clay real-time systems, which the UML has modified to fit acquisitive development.
A accompaniment diagram is about acclimated to archetypal the behavior of an article that needs a complete description of its detached states. Many altar in standard business systems may not accept cogent states, in which case they will not need accompaniment diagrams. (On the added hand, for those developing real-time systems, a altercation of accompaniment diagrams and accompaniment clay can be a book by itself.) A state diagram is about associated with one and alone one class, and lists all the states that a accurate article can accept during arrangement operation.
Each angled rectangle represents one accompaniment that an article can be in. A state diagram charge represent all the states in which an article can acquisition itself, as well as ascertain an antecedent accompaniment the article will be in. An antecedent state is apparent as a filled-in atramentous circle. The final accompaniment of an article is not required if the article has no final state, such as in a arrangement that is always running.
An article passes from one accompaniment to addition afterward a transition triggered by an accident aural the arrangement (typically, a adjustment invocation). A transition is apparent by cartoon an arrow from one accompaniment to addition and is associated with an accident that triggers the transition.
Figure 3.32 shows the accompaniment diagram for a ablaze about-face that shows both alteration curve and events.
Figure 3.32 Accompaniment diagram assuming the two states of a ablaze switch.
An action diagram is a “special case of a accompaniment diagram in which all (or at atomic most) of the states are action or subactivity states and in which all (or at atomic most) of the transitions are triggered by completion of the accomplishments or subactivities in the antecedent states” (Rational Software Corporation 1999, 3-151). In fact, they’re basically adult versions of flowcharts. They’re advised to awning workflows and processes, and have much of the acidity of flowcharts after the abrogating “baggage.” Their depiction as versions of accompaniment diagrams is accountable to abundant criticism, but at least it helps to accomplish them a constant affiliate of the UML family.
An action diagram is absorbed to a chic (which includes a use case for the UML), to a package, or to the accomplishing of an operation. The UML Specification says that they “focus on flows apprenticed by internal processing (as against to alien events)” (1999, 3-151). It recommends using them area the contest complex represent the achievement of internally generated accomplishments (for procedural breeze of control).
In an action diagram, swimlanes are acclimated to amalgamation the organizational boundaries aural an action model: they are acclimated to show who is accomplishing what in an action model.
When it is all-important to announce that two or added accomplishments action in parallel, a band alleged a synchronization bar shows area anniversary cilia in the parallel accomplishments halts, cat-and-mouse until the added accoutrement ability the same point.
Figure 3.33 shows an action archetypal for the workflow of an adjustment system. Organized about the responsibilities of the customer, sales, and the warehouse, swimlanes are the vertical curve administration the diagram and anecdotic the responsibilities for anniversary activity.
Figure 3.33 An adjustment action with three swimlanes, anniversary assuming the albatross of the business assemblage during the process.
Implementation diagrams archetypal accomplishing artifacts and considerations, including how the antecedent cipher is structured and how (and where) the executables are fabricated available. The UML Blueprint suggests that they additionally can be activated in a broader faculty to business modeling. Components are the business procedures and documents, and the run-time structure is the alignment units and assets (human and other) of the business (1999, 3-165). There are two types of accomplishing diagrams: component diagrams and deployment diagrams.
Component diagrams appearance the anatomy of the cipher (see Figure 3.34). According to the UML Specification, they are “the dependencies amid software components, including antecedent cipher components, bifold cipher components, and executable components” (1999). The nuances of basic are such that it seems to be as adaptable a appellation as architectonics and abstraction.
Figure 3.34 Basic diagram assuming the dependencies amid apparatus of a payment-processing system
Deployment diagrams appearance the anatomy of the runtime arrangement (see Figure 3.35), including the “configuration of runtime processing elements and the software components, processes, and altar that alive on them” (Rational Software Corporation 1999, 3-166). For business modeling, the UML Blueprint says runtime elements accommodate workers and authoritative units, and the software apparatus accommodate procedures and abstracts acclimated by the workers and authoritative units.
Figure 3.35 Deployment diagram assuming run-time nodes and apparatus for a browser-based three-tier annual administration system
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