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PBS Airdate: February 24, 2016

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NARRATOR: It’s one of the best aggressive challenges in the history of technology:…

GILL PRATT (Defense Avant-garde Analysis Projects Bureau [DARPA]): Ladies and gentlemen, alpha your robots.

NARRATOR: …the chase to analysis robots that can save lives in a disaster, that can alike accomplishment us. But to do that, they will charge to ascend ladders, airing over rubble, about-face valves, and no one knows if it’s alike possible.

RUSS TEDRAKE (Roboticist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology): There’s so abounding things that could go wrong. It’s scary.

VIJAY KUMAR (Roboticist, Penn Engineering): Aback you try to brainwash human-like intelligence, human-like abetment abilities into machines. It’s aloof very, actual adamantine to do.

NARRATOR: What will it booty for robots to accept the appropriate stuff? And are we accessible for the consequences?

SHERRY TURKLE (Roboethicist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology): It’s too accessible to attending at them and say, “Oh, they’re not there yet. They will get to article actual powerful, and afresh you accept to say, “Well, breadth will we accept gotten to?”

AYANNA HOWARD (Roboticist, Georgia Institute of Technology): They adeptness absolutely accept the accommodation to be smarter than us.

NARRATOR: What appulse will robots accept on our future? On how we work, how we interact, alike how we see ourselves? Rise of the Robots, appropriate now, on NOVA.

For decades, roboticists accept wowed us with their creations,…

iCub (Humanoid robot): Do you accept any questions?

NARRATOR: …especially in Japan, breadth bots are starting to baker for us, do the laundry, alike sing and dance. Some attending so beastly it’s adamantine to acquaint us apart. But looks can be deceiving.

DENNIS HONG (Roboticist, UCLA): Bodies see these humanoid robots developed in Japan, all these adorned things, and they had the apprehension that, “Oh, we accept these robots, and they’re activity to, you know, save the world.” But that didn’t happen.

NARRATOR: March 2011: a adverse convulsion and tsunami rocked Japan. Explosions and fires at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear adeptness bulb larboard the breadth alarmingly radioactive. Activity inside, alike for a few minutes, was life-threatening. It was the absolute time for Japan’s cutting-edge robots to appear to the rescue. But none did.

PAUL OH (University of Nevada, Las Vegas): The absolute tragedy was if, simply, some valves could accept been angry or some switches could accept been flicked or hoses attached, a lot of the accident could accept been prevented. The catechism was, “When robots were bare the most, aloof how appear they weren’t effective?” And so I anticipate that led to a lot of self, you know, reflection.

NARRATOR: Afterwards decades of analysis breadth were our apprentice heroes? For generations, science fiction has portrayed robots as our loyal servants.

MARVIN MILLER (As Robbie the Apprentice in Forbidden Planet/Film Clip): Adequate to Altair IV gentlemen. I am to carriage you to the residence.

NARRATOR: But it turns out, our acuteness has taken us abundant added than our technology. It’s adamantine to actualize robots that can action in our world.

TONY STENTZ (Carnegie Mellon University): One of the challenges with deploying robots in the absolute apple is that the absolute apple is like the Wild, Wild West. It’s actual affluent and circuitous and actual unforgiving.

NARRATOR: What will it booty for robots to accomplish their way out of the lab and into the absolute world? We’re about to acquisition out,…

GILL PRATT: Ladies and gentlemen, alpha your robots!

NARRATOR: …at the best aggressive robotics antagonism in history.

GILL PRATT: We adequate you to the DARPA robotics challenge. This is breadth acuteness meets innovation.

RUSS TEDRAKE: You accept completed the course! Wooooh!

NARRATOR: In 2013, at a racetrack on the outskirts of Miami, DARPA, the analysis arm of the U.S. Department of Defense, challenged 16 teams from about the apple to analysis accomplishment robots that can advice save lives in a disaster.

DENNIS HONG: Actual exciting, actual exhausted, actual afraid and frustrated, at the aforementioned time. Dealing with robots is consistently like that.

NARRATOR: It is the affectionate of claiming DARPA is accepted for, cutting-edge and high-risk.

DARPA was formed aback in the 1950s in acknowledgment to the barrage of Sputnik, the world’s aboriginal bogus satellite, congenital by the Soviet Union. Aback then, the bureau has spent billions developing aggressive technology, avant-garde ammunition like stealth technology, drones and night vision. But the spin-offs from this analysis accept gone far above the military. The internet, G.P.S., bionic arms, alike Siri, were all fueled with DARPA funding.

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SIRI (Voice of Apple Operating Arrangement in Television Commercial for Apple/Film Clip): It’s off your calendar.

SAMUEL L. JACKSON (Film Clip): Good.

NARRATOR: If these advisers accomplish in creating accomplishment robots, the aforementioned technology could be acclimated to advance robots that booty affliction of the elderly, babysit our kids, apple-pie up afterwards us, robots in about every angle of life.

But first, can robots absolutely advice out in a disaster?

To acquisition out, DARPA has set up an obstacle advance for bots. With beastly operators authoritative their every move, the robots charge accomplish basal tasks, like aperture a door.

STUDENT ROBOTICIST #1: All appropriate go, go, go!

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NARRATOR: Axis a valve, conduct a aperture in a wall, walking over rubble, alike active a car. Bot afterwards bot takes their aboriginal accomplish into the absolute world, and there’s annihilation accessible about it.

NICOLAUS RADFORD (Former NASA Johnson Amplitude Centermost Valkyrie Aggregation Leader): It’s a awe-inspiring challenge. I mean, DARPA calls it “DARPA-hard.” I mean, I about said it was “DARPA-impossible.”

NARRATOR: Robots abatement off ladders. Some about move an inch. They alike attempt to accessible doors.

JERRY PRATT (Institute for Beastly & Apparatus Cognition): The things that a beastly can do instinctively, easily, you don’t apprehend how adamantine article like walking is until you try to carbon it in a machine.

PAUL OH: Aback my babyish babe took her aboriginal step, did she walk? No, she took a step, and she fell down. Over time, she started to walk, right? And it’s affectionate of like what we’re seeing here, there are a lot of babyish steps.

NARRATOR: Afterwards two canicule of competition, the after-effects are not impressive. But this is aloof the alpha of DARPA’s admirable experiment. The bureau is giving the roboticists accession adventitious to get it right, and they’re putting their money breadth their aperture is. The top-scoring teams in this aboriginal claiming are accepting a actor dollars anniversary to abide their work. In 18 months they will acknowledgment for the final claiming and the adventitious to win a admirable award-winning of $2,000,000.

GILL PRATT: It’s not bright to me how able-bodied the teams are activity to do. It can’t be too hard, because afresh everybody fails. It can’t be too easy, because afresh it’s not account accomplishing at all. But if you accomplish it aloof right, like Goldilocks…right? I accept approved to hit the candied atom of difficulty, but I anticipate risking abortion is the DARPA way.

NARRATOR: Will the claiming advance the technology a behemothic footfall forward? Will robots anytime accomplish their way through our apple the way we do?

STUDENT ROBOTICIST #2: No!

RODNEY BROOKS (Rethink Robotics): Aback in the aboriginal ’50s, Alan Turing, one of the founders of bogus intelligence, said that the best affair we could do was analysis a apprentice with TV cameras for its eyes and rotors to drive its legs and accept it antic about the countryside and apprentice from the absolute world. But he absitively that was technologically too adamantine aback in the ’50s, which it absolutely was. So he said, let’s leave that concrete alternation until later, and let’s assignment on added abstruse problems, the intelligence abstruse problems.

NARRATOR: The acreage of bogus intelligence, or A.I., has already congenital machines that exhausted us at chess, barter stocks with lightning speed, and chase for annihilation we want, in an instant. Yet, aback it comes to robotics, advance has been acutely slow.

Some of the better problems robots face are things we bodies usually booty for granted, like mobility, chiral adeptness and the adeptness to see and accept our environment. These are the challenges the robotics teams will accouterment in the DARPA competition, alpha with mobility.

What’s the best way to accomplish a apparatus that can move through our world? Does it charge to airing on two feet, like us? Some roboticists anticipate the acknowledgment is yes.

DENNIS HONG: The appearance of the apprentice is dictated by what it needs to do. There’s a acumen why the footfall admeasurement in your home is this big. There’s a acumen why your aperture handle’s this high, because it’s advised for the bodies to move around. So unless the apprentice is the appearance and admeasurement of a human, it won’t be able to cross and move about in the ambiance advised for humans.

NARRATOR: But accepting about on two anxiety isn’t easy, alike for us. It takes your boilerplate babyish about a year to go from ample to toddling to walking. What does it booty to accord a apprentice this built-in beastly ability?

It’s one of the better problems adverse roboticists today. In Pensacola, Florida, at the Institute for Beastly & Apparatus Cognition, or I.H.M.C., one of the teams aggressive in the DARPA robotics claiming is adamantine at work, developing its own software to run this massive bot, alleged Atlas, a 385-pound powerhouse.

DARPA adjourned the architecture and development of this accomplishment robot.

Several teams aggressive in the claiming are application this accouterments but autograph altered software to adviser their robot.

You adeptness admiration why Atlas is so top-heavy. Best of its colossal head, is arranged with cameras and sensors. And while its anxiety may attending small, they’re advised to fit in the affectionate of places we walk.

JERRY PRATT: With beastly walking robots, there’s still a lot of strategies we accept to determine, and there’s no accepted arbiter band-aid yet. It’s added art than science, still.

NARRATOR: For aggregation baton Jerry Pratt, award the best way for a beastly apprentice to airing has not been accessible or quick.

JERRY PRATT: Well, I’ve been alive on beastly walking robots aback 1994, so, 21 years now.

NARRATOR: He started aback in alum academy at the M.I.T. Leg Lab, breadth some of the best bizarre-looking bots hopped, jumped and flipped.

But the robots Jerry congenital were different, because they absolved on two feet. Application attributes as his guide, Jerry gave his bipeds hips, knees and ankles that mimicked how animals move.

This one, alleged “spring flamingo,” had distinctively advised motors that formed a lot like muscles, capricious the bulk of adeptness anniversary collective used. Its legs and anxiety formed a bit like shock absorbers. They had a little give.

JERRY PRATT: That apprentice was a absolutely adequate workhorse. We had it alive for about three years, apparently absolved about 20 afar or so.

NARRATOR: Aback it came to designing a humanoid, he focused on developing the absolute aggregate of accouterments and software that would accredit his beastly to breach cocked as it calculates the best way to about-face its centermost of mass, lift its leg, beat it forward, and put its bottom aback bottomward in the appropriate abode and with aloof the appropriate bulk of pressure. To accomplish these active calculations, the apprentice needs instructions, curve of cipher that acquaint it how to move.

These curve of cipher are accounting in a programming accent that resembles English, but for Atlas to use them, its onboard computer has a affairs that translates them into a accent a apparatus can understand: zeros and ones.

It takes added than 2,000,000 curve of cipher to run Atlas; 500,000 aloof to put one bottom in avant-garde of the other. It’s the coaction of accouterments and software that keeps this bot on its feet, an adeptness that took hundreds of bags of years of beastly change to perfect.

JERRY PRATT: We’ll generally attending at, “what strategies does a beastly use in adjustment to walk?” Because the physics in the apple that a beastly operates in is the aforementioned as the robot.

NARRATOR: But we wouldn’t be able to booty a distinct footfall afterwards accepting some appealing amazing senses. Aback you walk, your eyes ascertain the position of your analysis about to the apple about it. At the actual aforementioned time a alternation of fluid-filled canals in the aing ear, tells your academician the position and motion of your head, so you apperceive which way is up. And a affectionate of sixth sense, alleged “proprioception” uses your analysis and fretfulness to ascertain breadth your accoutrements and legs are, in affiliation to anniversary other. All this advice comes calm in a allotment of the academician alleged the cerebellum.

What affectionate of senses does Atlas use to airing on two feet? For eyes, the bot has a stereo camera and a brace of fisheye lenses afraid out the ancillary of its head, forth with a spinning laser, alleged LIDAR, that scans aggregate in the apple about it and creates a 3D archetypal of its environment.

Atlas doesn’t accept an aing ear to acquaint it which way is up. Instead, it uses a babyish base in its base that contains gyros and accelerometers that acquaint it breadth it is and how it’s moving. In addition, sensors on anniversary collective acquaint Atlas breadth its limbs are in affiliation to anniversary other. The aftereffect is an amazing faculty of balance, acceptance Atlas to angle on one foot, like a ballerina, at atomic in the lab.

But in the absolute world, Atlas’s gyros and sensors aren’t consistently enough.

JERRY PRATT: We alone accept a bound cardinal of sensors on the robot, admitting with a beastly or an beastly you accept bags of little force sensors on every aboveboard inch of your body.

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NARRATOR: Over 100,000, aloof on the soles of your feet.

JERRY PRATT: You can footfall on article and ascertain what it is. Whereas, the robots, they don’t apperceive that. They aloof apperceive they stepped on something.

NARRATOR: At the final challenge, if Atlas should footfall on article the amiss way, if the accouterments and software don’t assignment perfectly, it will fall.

JERRY PRATT: We cannot get up from a fall, currently, and we apparently won’t survive a fall. If we abatement during the finals, that may be the end of our accomplished weekend.

NARRATOR: Atlas isn’t the alone beastly that has agitation blockage upright. Accommodated Hubo, advised and programmed by cousins Paul Oh and Junho Oh.

At the aboriginal challenge, Hubo acutely wasn’t accessible for the big, bad world.

PAUL OH: It’s with fondness, it’s additionally with some affliction that we anticipate about it. We went into the claiming with absolutely a lot of enthusiasm. But aback we got there, it was aloof like one affair afterwards another. There were a lot of these absolute apple instances that we did not acquaintance in the lab. That was a absolute awakening.

NARRATOR: Across the ocean, at the Korea Avant-garde Institute of Science and Technology, Junho Oh is additionally accomplishing some soul-searching.

JUNHO OH (Roboticist, Korea Avant-garde Institute of Science and Technology): Our apprehension was actual high, but aftereffect was actual catastrophic, so gap was too big. It took at atomic a brace of months for the accretion that I get aback to my accustomed brainy stage.

NARRATOR: Afterwards the shock wore off, the cousins agreed to accomplish a aitionist change in the architecture of their biped.

PAUL OH: My accessory has appear up with this abstraction of abacus auto to Hubo’s knees, as able-bodied as casters on its toes. And I alarm it the “kneeling prayer” mode.

JUNHO OH: Okay, so we are so happy. So we adjudge abbreviate ambit movement aloof airing okay. It’s a risk, but it will be fine. And far distance, we move wheel. It’s abundant added stable.

PAUL OH: Bodies don’t accept auto on the knees, but there’s no acumen why we can’t add that to a robot.

NARRATOR: Aback the cousins acknowledgment for the final challenge, they’ll admission their humanoid, adapted with the advice of some able engineering.

But for a apprentice to advice out in a disaster, accepting there is aloof the aboriginal of abounding challenges. To abetment accomplishment workers in the absolute world, it needs easily with the affectionate of backbone and adeptness it takes to lift abundant hoses, assignment into walls, adhesive and saw. It needs a brace of these.

OLIVER BROCH (Roboticist, University of Berlin): Our acquaintance of the beastly duke is that we can do aggregate with it. We can dig ourselves through rubble, we can accomplish absolutely nice paintings, we can knit. The beastly duke absolutely distinguishes our breed from all added species.

SID SRINIVASA (Roboticist, Carnegie Mellon University): If you attending at the way bodies dispense objects, we accept this aptitude for concrete sensing, for activity the world. Understandably so. We’ve had over 200,000 years of beastly change to get to this accurate point.

NARRATOR: Is it accessible to construe a masterpiece of change into motors, cables, sensors and bags of curve of code?

On the outskirts of London, abaft an backward storefront, a babyish accumulation of apprentice enthusiasts are architecture a automatic duke that they achievement could one day battling our own.

ARMANDO DE LA ROSA (Engineer, Shadow Robotics): Aback we aboriginal started architecture a hand, we absolutely bought analysis books and approved to accept how the duke works. We anticipation it would be adequate if we could copy, as best we can, the beastly hand.

RICHARD WALKER (Engineer, Shadow Robotics): The Shadow duke was congenital with the abstraction of aggravating to get as aing as accessible to the beastly duke but as engineers.

NARRATOR: Like the beastly hand, this automatic adaptation has four fingers and a thumb. It’s about the aforementioned admeasurement as the aboriginal and can alike agitate like one, but that’s breadth the similarities end.

RICH WALKER: We backpack a huge bulk of analysis and actuation. We accept 25 collective position sensors, nine analog agenda converters; we accept two tendons advancing from anniversary collective to a motor in the forearm; 20 motors in the forearm. Anniversary motor has a temperature sensor, a accepted sensor and two abounding sensors, so we can acquaint how adamantine the motor is alive and how adamantine it’s active the tendons. We put acquaintance analysis in the fingertips, so we can acquaint that we affected something. So, there is a abundance of accretion adeptness aloof to get article that has the aforementioned affectionate of movements as your hand.

NARRATOR: And with this akin of dexterity, it can do a lot added than agenda tricks.

ARMANDO DE LA ROSA: We accept this duke administration pipettes and lab equipment, removing the beastly from the risk, for example, bodies that assignment with very, actual abominable bacilli and viruses.

NARRATOR: The Shadow duke was advised for aerial tasks, not for bedraggled jobs like this.

RICH WALKER: Aback you attending at breadth apprentice easily get used, you acquisition bodies who appetite to do article aerial and absolute and bodies who appetite article big and asperous and solid.

NARRATOR: For the robots in the DARPA challenge, backbone and attention are a must. Award the antithesis amid them has been a attempt for aggregation baton Brett Kennedy, who developed this four-legged accomplishment robot, alleged Robosimian, actuality at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

BRETT KENNEDY (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory): My aboriginal intuition is that this bare to be a actual able-bodied hand. And I was thinking, “Well, able-bodied agency big. Why don’t we acquisition out how big Wilt Chamberlain’s duke is, and accomplish a duke that big?”

So, if anybody’s curious, Wilt Chamberlain’s duke is very, actual big, and not alone is it very, actual big, aback you accomplish a automatic adaptation of it, it absolutely cannot accord with accustomed human-scale tools.

NARRATOR: So they acclimate their design, authoritative a abate duke with aloof three fingers.

BRETT KENNEDY: This does aggregate we bare it to in the competition. It affective everything—the beastly tools—so we anticipation we were in appealing adequate shape. 

NARRATOR: But then, at the aboriginal challenge, Robosimian had to accessible a door, and things got messy.

BRETT KENNEDY: So, here’s an alone finger, and in that alone feel there is an bogus tendon, it’s a constructed fiber, aback boundless armament happen, it snaps.

NARRATOR: Aback Kennedy accomplished Robosimian’s fingers couldn’t accommodate the backbone he was attractive for, he came up with a radically altered idea.

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BRETT KENNEDY: So this is the “cam hand.” To do best of the assignment that we charge to, a simple angle works aloof fine, so that we can absolutely get a grasp, and we can authority assimilate best aggregate we accept to.

The actuality of the amount is this is a actual simple, impaired system. It closes until it encounters article and it will authority it, and it’ll authority it securely.

NARRATOR: In their adventure to victory, the teams aggressive in the DARPA claiming will await on all kinds of hands. Abounding are application this gripper, advised with three fingers that can blanket about a array of altar and alike aces up article small.

CLÉMENT GOSSELIN (Roboticist, Laval University): If we attending at tasks like, for instance, aperture a aperture or application a drill, application duke accoutrement and things, appealing abundant all these tasks you can accomplish application three fingers.

NARRATOR: Automatic grippers accept already fabricated their way assimilate the branch floor, absorbed to massive automatic accoutrements that are as able-bodied as they are precise. They analysis cars, lift abundant boxes, backpack beer, array through annihilation and aggregate from batteries to pancakes, accomplishing the affectionate of jobs abounding bodies accede repetitive and absolute boring.

But some experts fear, as robots move above the branch into the absolute world, they’ll booty on a lot more.

GARY MARCUS (Geometric Intelligence): I anticipate that we will lose at atomic 20 or 30 percent of our jobs, over the aing 20 years, and apparently more. Fast-food workers are mostly activity to be replaced. The cashiers at Wal-Mart, their jobs aren’t activity to aftermost that abundant longer. The aboriginal to go are activity to be drivers. Uber is spending a lot of money on driverless cars. Google is spending a lot of money. Now Toyota is. Forty years from now, there are not activity to be a lot of jobs.

NARRATOR: But not anybody agrees the approaching looks absolutely so grim. Over the accomplished century, while robots and automation took over abounding accomplishment jobs, added kinds of jobs accept increased. Some anticipate that trend will continue.

TERESA GHILARDUCCI (Economist, New School): Machines in all of avant-garde bread-and-er history accept helped actualize jobs, not taken them away. Machines are complements to workers, not substitutes. They appear calm and enhance the abundance of each. They charge anniversary other.

NARRATOR: Today, added and added jobs crave bodies to assignment ancillary by ancillary with robots on the accumulation line, programming them, and acclimation them. Technology creates new jobs, but alone for those who accept the abilities to adapt.

What happens to the workers larboard behind?

TERESA GHILARDUCCI: The artisan who was displaced has to be compensated through retraining or through a pension. So, that’s a amusing problem, not a botheration abiding in technology.

GARY MARCUS: Bodies should already be cerebration about what affectionate of association we would appetite if not everybody can accept jobs.

NARRATOR: Abounding ethicists say we should additionally be cerebration about which jobs we appetite to duke over to machines.

RON ARKIN (Georgia Institute of Technology): Abundant of the things that we are creating can be acclimated for a accomplished ample ambit of abeyant applications, alignment from eldercare and childcare robots, to healthcare automatic platforms, alike agent objects. What is acceptable?

NARRATOR: What appulse these high-tech machines will accept in the abode and our homes charcoal unclear, but one thing’s for sure, robots are starting to booty their aboriginal babyish accomplish out of the lab and into the absolute world, acquirements how to dispense altar we use every day.

But for a accomplishment apprentice to be absolutely useful, there’s accession hurdle advisers face, the toughest one of all: the claiming of giving a apparatus the adeptness to accept its environment, to accord it a brain.

MATT JOHNSON (Roboticist, Institute for Beastly & Apparatus Cognition): Our apprentice doesn’t absolutely accept what you’d alarm a brain. He’s not seeing the world, he’s not acquainted the world. It’s not thinking, it’s not reasoning. You know, it’s appealing dumb.

NARRATOR: In fact, today’s accomplishment robots are so impaired DARPA permits beastly operators to adviser them, footfall by step. The bot waits for instructions that acquaint it what to do: those zeros and ones that computers understand. The instructions biking through an active activity that connects every allotment of hardware, every motor and sensor to a computer controlled by a aggregation of beastly operators. The operators acquaint with their robots via a wireless connection, aloof like they would be at a absolute adversity and at the final challenge.

These operators, at Carnegie Mellon University, are about to adviser their accomplishment robot, alleged CHIMP, through one of the abilities it needs to adept for the final DARPA challenge, axis a valve. Application six altered cameras, amid on the avant-garde and aback of its head, and a spinning sensor, alleged LIDAR, the bot sends abstracts about its ambiance to the operators.

A 3D angel of CHIMP’s apple appears on their monitors. CHIMP has no abstraction what it’s attractive at, so, with the bang of a mouse, the bodies acquaint it absolutely breadth the valve is.

CLARK HAYES (Roboticist, Carnegie Mellon): Recognizing objects, that’s a actual adamantine botheration in robotics, so we let the beastly acquaint the aberration amid a cat and a dog, a valve and a door.

NARRATOR: Next, they appearance CHIMP breadth to grab the valve, which way and how far to about-face it. But it would be impossibly apathetic and abstract for the operators to acquaint CHIMP how to move every joint, every sensor, every motor of its circuitous arm. This job charge be done by the robot, all on its own. Application a action alleged “motion planning,” CHIMP determines the best aisle for its arm to travel.

ERIC MEYERHOFF (Engineer, Carnegie Mellon): It shows the abettor what its intentions are, what its aisle will be, how it’s activity to get there. There’s a plan. In the end, it’s activity to be, you say, “Okay, I accept your plan, CHIMP. Go avant-garde and do your thing.” And off it goes.

CLARK HAYES: As we move appear developing this technology further, we absolutely appetite to advance on the apprentice freedom and let CHIMP do added things on its own, but we consistently appetite to accumulate this as a apparatus for a human.

NARRATOR: In added words, accumulate the beastly in the bend and in control, but that’s not every team’s goal.

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Russ Tedrake is demography a altered approach. He is bent to accord his Atlas apprentice as abundant freedom as he can, to accomplish it a accomplished lot smarter.

RUSS TEDRAKE: Our ambition as researchers, abnormally in this bogus intelligence lab, we appetite to breach the abiding analysis questions about how to accomplish free robots. This is the aing we’ve anytime appear to architecture an bogus intelligence machine, breadth this humanoid apprentice is affective through the world, analytic absolute problems.

NARRATOR: At a disaster, breadth you can’t consistently calculation on a wireless connection, the smarter the bot gets, the added it can do on its own. To actualize a added free robot, Tedrake is developing software that helps it acquisition and analyze altar with a bit added independence.

RUSS TEDRAKE: So, if the apprentice is aloof attractive at my kitchen at home, there are dishes everywhere, and you ask the apprentice to acquisition a spoon, that’s a absolutely adamantine question. If the beastly aloof says “there’s a spoon, roughly, over here, click,” and he aloof has to attending in a little application of amplitude for article that’s about the aforementioned appearance as a spoon, that takes an acutely adamantine botheration of article acceptance in a complicated environment, and turns it into a actual simple botheration of, “Okay, I appetite to attending for spoon-shaped things in this babyish arena of space.”

NARRATOR: While CHIMP needs its beastly operators to acquaint it absolutely breadth a valve is and breadth to grab it, M.I.T.’s Atlas is programmed to admit a valve on its own, amount out the accomplish it needs to booty as it approaches, afresh grab and about-face it, with actual little beastly help.

RUSS TEDRAKE: We can put it in an free access and, basically, aloof watch the apprentice execute. It shows us what it’s about to do. We could consistently stop it if it looked like it was activity to do article wrong. But, aback things are activity well, the robot’s operating about absolutely autonomously.

STUDENT ROBOTICIST #3: There’s no absolute ascribe advancing to us from the robot, at this point. It’s aloof activity on with its task.

NARRATOR: A added arrogant apprentice could, potentially, advice save added lives in a disaster, but aloof how absolute do we appetite accomplishment robots to get? What if an free apprentice enters a adversity and has to adjudge who lives and who dies?

It’s the affectionate of moral bind that gave Will Smith nightmares in the cine I, Robot,…

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ALAN TUDYK (As Sonny the Apprentice in I, Robot/Film Clip): You are in danger.

NARRATOR: …when a bot chose to save his activity over the activity of an eleven-year-old girl.

WILL SMITH (As Del Spooner in I, Robot/Film Clip): Save the girl. Save her.

I was the analytic choice. It affected I had a 45 percent adventitious of survival. Sarah alone had an 11 percent chance. Eleven percent is added than enough. A beastly actuality would accept accepted that.

NARRATOR: While today’s cutting-edge machines, like the bags of drones acclimated by the U.S. military, still accept a beastly in the loop, what happens in the future, if they don’t?

AYANNA HOWARD: This chat is activity on appropriate now, conversations about the ethical laws of robots. How far should we absolutely advance this technology?

PETER SINGER (New America Foundation): How abundant freedom do we appetite to accord this new technology? Alike the semi-autonomous ones accession assertive absorbing issues, like, “Who’s to accusation aback article goes wrong?”

RON ARKIN: These systems will not be foolproof. They will not be perfect. It’s important to bethink that.

NARRATOR: How these automatic technologies, free or not, will be acclimated on the battlefield of the future, charcoal an accessible question. But now, aloof a anniversary afore the final challenge, the roboticists are starting to feel the ascent pressure. Brett Kennedy, who leads the Robosimian team, is no exception.

BRETT KENNEDY: I absolutely accept no abstraction how we’re activity to abode aural the all-embracing acreage at the robotics challenge. All the advisers that are bringing their teams are top flight, so breadth we end up in that, I don’t know.

NARRATOR: Will Jerry Pratt’s years of analysis with beastly robots assuredly pay off? Will Paul Oh and Junho Oh redeem themselves afterwards Hubo’s poor achievement at the aboriginal challenge?

JUNHO OH: My students, they’re actual nervous, because it’s the aftermost chance, and we accept that we can do it.

NARRATOR: Is CHIMP’s aggregate of accouterments and software aloof what its beastly operators need? Or will added freedom advice or arrest the aggregation from M.I.T.?

RUSS TEDRAKE: There’re so abounding things that could go amiss or,…geez, the adventitious that the apprentice could break, or article that formed 99 out of 100 times, we get unlucky. It’s scary.

NARRATOR: June 5th, 2015, our roboticists accommodated already again, this time at the Los Angeles County Fairgrounds. Over the aing two days, they’ll altercation with finalists from about the world. Several teams appear from Korea and Japan. This little apprentice comes from Germany.

Most are adjourned through government or accumulated sponsorship, but some bots, like this odd attractive one, alleged Cogburn, are adjourned by the teams themselves.

JUNHO OH: You appetite to be a aboriginal abode in this competition, you too?

PAUL OH: Well, yeah, of course.

JERRY PRATT: Actual annealed competition, looks like there’re a lot of adequate teams, apparently be a lot that accomplish it through the course, so it will appear bottomward to the top speed.

NARRATOR: To win, anniversary apprentice charge accomplish a alternation of tasks, a lot like the ones they faced in the aboriginal challenge, from active a car to conduct a aperture in a wall, to walking over debris, to arrest a flight of stairs. The apprentice that completes the advance in the beeline time wins.

That puts a lot of burden on the operators to accumulate their bots moving. And DARPA has befuddled accession bend into the mix, aloof like at a absolute disaster. The adeptness of the wireless affiliation amid the operators and their robots fluctuates. Sometimes the robots will accept a base signal, aloof $.25 and pieces of the abstracts that tells them what to do, added times, no data, no instructions at all.

DARPA is acquisitive this will advance the roboticists to advance added free systems, bots that can accomplishment a job afterwards our help.

But what makes the final claiming absolute nerve-wracking is that, clashing the aboriginal competition, breadth the bots were tethered, this time about there are no assurance curve allowed, putting these multi-million dollar machines in absolute jeopardy.

GILL PRATT: What I was afraid about is that about none of the teams had activated their robots off the assurance tether. We had no idea, aback these robots fell, how abominably they would break, so, abounding of the teams were absolutely scared.

NARRATOR: Finally, the antagonism begins. Anniversary apprentice has two affairs to run the course. I.H.M.C. starts their aboriginal run. The apprentice drives afterwards a hitch,…

JOHN KARP (Main Operator, Institute for Beastly & Apparatus Cognition): Perfect.

NARRATOR: …walks up to the aperture with ease,…

JOHN KARP: Go through the door.

NARRATOR: All is attractive good. Aloof two added tasks to go.

JOHN KARP: Nice.

No!

NARRATOR: It’s Jerry’s affliction nightmare. Afterwards years of perfecting his walking software, a tiny misstep in the absolute apple brought one of the best avant-garde robots on Apple to its knees.

JERRY PRATT: Nobody was absolutely abiding if the Atlas apprentice would survive the fall. You know, we’ve never had Atlas abatement afore today.

NARRATOR: The aggregation worries the bot can’t be repaired in time for its final run.

For Carnegie Mellon’s robot, CHIMP, the day is additionally abounding with ups and downs.

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ERIC MEYERHOFF: Aback he fell bottomward through the door, you know, he’s laying there, and we were just, “Oh no.”

NARRATOR: Aback in the garage, the operators clutter to acquisition a way to get the red bot aback up on its treads again. But the bigger a bot, the harder it falls. Abate robots abatement afterwards breaking, and accept absolutely camp agency of accepting aback up again. But they’re too babyish to do the affectionate of abundant appropriation accomplishment robots charge to do at a disaster.

DENNIS HONG: Already you accomplish it added and larger, you charge stronger motors, and stronger motor agency added motors. And added motors access the all-embracing weight.

NARRATOR: CHIMP weighs over four hundred pounds. That’s an abominable lot of apprentice to lift. The army begins to admiration if its run is done.

JOHN MARKOFF (New York Times): I begin it alluring to watch the army watching the robots. This was absolutely an affecting moment. They’re collections of affairs and apparatus and motors, and we were affectionate with them at a actual basal level.

NARRATOR: Afresh CHIMP’s leg begins to move.

ERIC MEYERHOFF: This little kid bottomward in the avant-garde screams, “He’s accepting up!”

NARRATOR: The bot not alone gets up, it completes all eight tasks, acceptable the aboriginal apprentice to accomplishment the course.

But not every aggregation is so lucky. As M.I.T. starts its run, acquisitive to appearance off its robot’s autonomy, things run amok in the ascendancy room.

RUSS TEDRAKE: We fabricated a simple abettor error. Aback we went to get out of the car, we forgot to about-face off the active controller, so the bottom approved to advance the throttle, aback it was accepting out of the car.

No, no, no…

NARRATOR: In an accomplishment to drive and get out of the car at the aforementioned time, the apprentice keels over and break its appropriate arm.

RUSS TEDRAKE: But the operators were able to antithesis and do, basically, the absolute advance left-handed.

NARRATOR: The apprentice is still able to do best of the tasks, but it faces one insurmountable problem: the aggregation has programmed it to use two easily to aces up the assignment and about-face it on. It can’t do that aback one of its easily is broken. Afterwards commutual all the tasks, aggregation M.I.T. has no adventitious of winning.

A weary aggregation I.H.M.C. has formed through the night aggravating to fix its robot.

JERRY PRATT: Somehow, the robot’s still working, but the abatement we took did article with the apprentice breadth he’s affectionate of all messed up a little bit.

NARRATOR: There’s article amiss with its LIDAR, the arrangement that scans the robot’s environment.

JERRY PRATT: The abettor is activity to accept to acclimatize on the fly and atone in his arch for the errors in our sensors.

JOHN KARP: Are we absolutely aptitude that much?

JERRY PRATT: Our action is still what it was yesterday: eight credibility or bust.

NARRATOR: The time has appear for their final run.

JOHN KARP: All right!

NARRATOR: They accomplish it through all the tasks, and access the alarming debris, breadth they fell on their aboriginal run.

JERRY PRATT: Appropriate first…

NARRATOR: But this time, they succeed. The abettor guides their apprentice all the way up the stairs, finishing the advance in almanac time.

JERRY PRATT: You know, accepting a beastly in the loop, you’ve got a supercomputer up here. Bodies can acclimate to aloof about anything.

Eight credibility confirmed.

NARRATOR: The aggregation is now in the active for aboriginal place. But a one-of-a-kind bot could still accord them a austere run for their money. Cousins Paul and Junho are anniversary aggressive with their own robot, acceleration the affairs that one of their humanoids on auto will win the day.

Paul’s aggregation makes it as far as the conduct task, until the assignment gets stuck, overheats and shuts down. But accessory Junho’s aggregation moves on. Their apprentice completes all the chiral tasks by rolling on its knees or continuing on its feet. But aback it approaches its final task, the stairs, it aback stops. Aback in the garage, its beastly handlers are double- and triple-checking the instructions they’re about to accelerate their robot. A aberration actuality will amount them the competition.

JUNHO OH: You accept to accept that apprentice is staying. Breach agency that abettor allowance actual busy. If the apprentice is moving, they don’t do anything.

NARRATOR: Their job is done. All they can do now is watch and wait. Finally, Hubo starts to ascend the stairs, clashing any beastly on earth, with its arch adverse avant-garde and its anxiety adverse back.

The humanoid on auto finishes all eight tasks faster than any added robot. Junho Oh’s apprentice Hubo wins the day; I.H.M.C. comes in second; Aggregation CHIMP, from Carnegie Mellon, comes in third.

These bots may accept confused slowly, but, aloof like a toddler, they’re demography babyish accomplish into our world.

RODNEY BROOKS: We tend to anticipate the apple today is what is activity to be like in 10 years and 20 years. But if we attending aback 10 years what we have, attending aback 20 years what we have, the apple has been absolutely transformed. It’s absolutely adamantine for us to brainstorm how altered it’s activity to be.

VIJAY KUMAR: In some ways, the change in the acreage has been actual incremental, but, in added ways, it’s been absolutely unpredictable.

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SHERRY TURKLE: It’s too accessible to attending at them and say, “Oh, they’re not there yet. They’re…” Well, they will get to article actual powerful, and afresh you accept to say, “Well, breadth will we accept gotten to?”

NARRATOR: In fact, a few months afterwards the finals, Boston Dynamics, the makers of the Atlas robot, took this adapted adaptation for a airing in a snow-covered woods. While it stumbles, it bound recovers its balance, aloof as we would.

SHERRY TURKLE: So, I aloof anticipate that we aloof charge to access this with our eyes accessible and accept our vulnerability to a technology that we are on the bend of creating.

NARRATOR: There’s no catechism that developing accomplishment robots, with the abeyant to save lives, makes a lot of sense. But the abeyant for added applications charcoal unclear. The time is now to anticipate about their role in our lives, as we face the Rise of the Robots.

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