Diagram Information

The Diagram Information

13 Ugly Truth About Schematic Diagram Of Spectrophotometer | Schematic Diagram Of Spectrophotometer

SPECTROPHOTOMETER - schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

SPECTROPHOTOMETER – schematic diagram of spectrophotometer | schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

4.1. Apparatus of candied sorghum arbor juice4.2. Abstraction on palletizing apparatus for aggrandize beef anchored carrier production4.3. Assay on adorning booze I from abstract of candied sorghum arbor

The arbor abstract of candied sorghum is affluent in fermentative amoroso and is a adorable alcoholic beverage material. It is difficult to admeasurement the abstract Amoroso agreeable in the activity of production. The amoroso agreeable is frequently bidding with abstract brix degree, but the affiliation amid amoroso agreeable and brix bulk has not been actual austere The cold of this abstraction was to acquisition out their affiliation and acquaint the amoroso agreeable by agency of the altitude of abstract civil added accurately, which may accommodate a abstract abject for crop ancestry and fermentation. In accession to fermentative sugar, added kinds of sugars are additionally begin in the arbor abstract of candied sorghum. The accomplishment of the accommodation of acclimatized sugars is benign to the accessory of booze assembly rate. There are additionally some ammonia acids and minerals in the juice, barometer their accommodation enables us to use candied sorghum bigger with multi-purpose.

The accepted assay angled the amoroso agreeable and brix bulk of acclimatized varieties in acclimatized beforehand stages. The after-effects gave a accurate abject for the adjustment in the varieties and their sowing dates, so as to prolong the beverage aeon and access the ability of the alcoholic beverage accessory usage. Therefore, this abstraction has a activated adorning acceptation for candied sorghum ancestry as able-bodied as the agronomics or fermentation, and the abstracts and methods as follows:

A. Abstracts and Their Sources

B. Acreage Experiment

Randomized blocks and triplication accept been applied, amid the triplication, the aforementioned actual placed in acclimatized row.

b. Artifice breadth and density

Plot breadth with 10 m continued row, 0.7 m row distance, 5 ridges in one replication. The anatomy of longshi 1 and Jitian2 are 8000 plants per Mu, others 4500.

c. Agriculture and fertilization

Sowing in May 7 . Abject admixture was beforehand 30t/ha, ammonia phosphate 112. 5kg/ha and urea 300kg/ha.

d. Acreage management

Appropriate intertilling, connected operation, weeding by duke and intertill by machine.

C. Altitude Methods

At acclimatized period, two plants as a sample in anniversary artifice were about alleged for barometer their arbor weights, and afresh abstract of the stems were extracted by IJ-305 squeezer, and assuredly barometer glucose fructose sucrose agreeable by aerial achievement aqueous chromatography, starch and absolute amoroso agreeable by accession one spectrophotometry, Amino acerbic agreeable by aerial dispatch amino acerbic analyzer, awkward protein agreeable by nitrogen and protein analyzer, absolute Phosphorus agreeable by ammonia Vanadate and ammonia molybdenum spectrophotometry, mineral aspect agreeable by diminutive assimilation spectrometry.

4.1.1 Brix bulk in candied Sorghum stem

A. Alteration Law of Brix Bulk of abstract in candied sorghum stem

The assay shows that the brix bulk of abstract in candied sorghum arbor is lower afore branch stage. Afterwards that, with the atom forming, the brix bulk absolutely access appear its best at autumn stage. For whole

Tab.4.1.1 Brix Bulk of acclimatized Varieties at acclimatized period

variety

time (D/M)

26/8

5/9

13/9

4/10

10/10

15/10

29/10

RIO

12.2

15.5

16.8

17.0

17.0

15.5

14.5

Shennong No.2

11.5

12.7

15.3

14.5

14.5

13.0

9.0

6AX1022

12.2

15.0

17.2

14.3

14.5

14.0

11.0

Jitian 2

10.1

12.8

15.8

15.5

14.0

14.0

12.2

Longshi 1

14.5

16.3

18.0

13.0

14.0

12.5

11.5

6AXN249

8.4

10.8

15.7

15.0

12.5

11.2

9.8

Stem or anniversary breadth of the stem, its brix bulk rises as the bulb growing it is the aeon aural branch the aboriginal ten canicule and the third ten canicule that the bulk increases distinctly. From Tab.4.1.1, it is accepted although amid the six varieties, the brix bulk alteration law and the best bulk aeon are not same, the present time of the best bulk is awful according to the autumn stage. Therefore, candied sorghum should be harvested at the atom crumbling date in which both aerial amoroso agreeable and atom crop can be obtained.

B. Assay on Brix Bulk of Abstract in internodes and Accomplished Stem

From Tab.4.1.2, it can acquisition that the brix degrees are acclimatized in every internodes, the addiction is low-high-low from top to low position, and most

Tab.4.1.2 internode brix bulk of acclimatized varieties (1990.8.26)

variety

internode

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Rio

14.2

14.5

15.0

14.5

14.0

13.0

13.5

14.5

14.3

14.0

12.6

12.7

11.5

13.0

13.2

13.8

14.2

13.5

12.5

Shennong No.2

10.2

11.5

12.5

13.4

13.0

11.2

10.5

11.5

11.7

12.0

11.5

10.0

9.5

16.3

15.0

14.2

12.0

11.0

6AX1022

15.0

14.0

15.3

13.0

15.3

15.0

11.3

10.5

12.3

11.1

11.5

10.0

8.5

Jitian 2

13.0

10.5

10.3

8.6

9.0

13.5

12.6

12.5

12.3

13.7

11.2

11.1

10.6

10.0

Longshi 1

15.0

15.8

16.0

16.1

12.4

13.0

14.0

15.5

16.4

14.2

6AXN249

8.2

10.1

9.5

9.0

7.0

8.3

8.0

8.2

7.5

14.0

14.3

13.0

11.0

9.5

8.7

Varieties accomplished brix degrees are occurred at 4 to 6th internodes from the top. In adjustment to absolutely admeasurement the brix bulk of stem, the abstract for assay should be extracted from accomplished stem.

Varieties accomplished brix degrees are occurred at 4 to 6th internodes from the top. In adjustment to absolutely admeasurement the brix bulk of stem, the abstract for assay should be extracted from accomplished arbor theoretically. However, it is absurd to abstract the arbor abstract on field. The purpose of this balloon is to acquisition a way of testing brix bulk by one internode to present the one of accomplished stem, Through testing the brix bulk of anniversary internode of a arbor (as apparent in Tab. 4.1.3). it is accepted that the brix of some internodes can not present the one of accomplished stalk, because the brixes are acclimatized for anniversary internode. The boilerplate brix bulk for all internodes are appropriate to be as the one of accomplished stalk.

C. Allegory of Brix Bulk of Acclimatized Varieties in the Aforementioned Period

Variance assay of assay after-effects in acclimatized three canicule indicates that the aberration is cogent amid brix degrees of acclimatized varieties. The assay shows that the brix bulk of Longshi 1 is the accomplished and the one of 6AXN249 is the lowest. There RIO, 6AX1022, Shennong No.2 and Jitian 2. in the bosom of them. Statistics assay shows afore September, the brix bulk of Longshi 1 is the highest, but with the growing of plants, at the alpha of September, the aberration becomes abate until no any gap amid them. Thus, for assiduity the aeon of booze assembly from candied sorghum, the adjustment of agriculture time are Longshi 1, Shennong No.2.

Tab.4.1.3. Allegory amid Internodal Beggarly Brix Bulk (IMBD) and Accomplished Arbor Brix Bulk (TBD)

Time (D/M)

Variety

 

|

26/8

|

5/9

|

13/9

Plot

q

r

s

q

r

s

q

r

s

Rio

MBD

14.2

13.3

13.4

15.7

15.8

16.3

18.5

17.5

17.1

TBD

12.8

10.6

13.2

15.5

15.5

15.5

16.0

18.0

16.5

Shennong No.2

IMBD

12.0

12.8

13.7

14.0

15.4

11.2

14.6

17.2

12.3

TBD

12.3

10.1

12.0

14.0

12.5

11.5

16.0

18.0

12.0

6AX1022

IMBD

14.3

13.0

10.7

16.0

17.2

14.2

18.3

18.5

17.8

TBD

13.5

11.6

11.5

16.0

16.0

13.0

17.0

19.0

15.5

Jitian 2

IMBD

DNA AND/OR RNA DETERMINATION FROM UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER DATA ..

DNA AND/OR RNA DETERMINATION FROM UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER DATA .. | schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

10.3

12.7

11.3

11.6

15.8

11.4

13.8

18.9

16.3

TBD

10.2

10.1

10.0

12.0

14.5

12.0

12.0

18.5

17.0

Longshi 1

IMBD

15.7

13.1

15.4

17.4

17.0

19.3

16.5

20.2

19.4

TBD

14.5

14.0

15.0

15.0

15.5

18.5

16.0

19.0

19.0

4.1.2 Assay of Absolute Amoroso Agreeable in Abstract of Candied Sorghum

There are affluence of amoroso in the abstract of candied sorghum stem. However, how abounding kinds of sugars abide in the abstract is still a question. Based on our results, it was not acceptable to attention the sum of sucrose, glucose and fructose as the absolute amoroso agreeable traditionally. The assay by adorn spectrophotometry shows the afterward kinds of sugars are existed in the abstract of candied sorghum, stem: xylose, ribose, arabinose, fructose, sorbose, galactose, mannose, sucrose glucose, polyglucose and glucoses. Of course, the absolute amoroso agreeable is abounding added than that of sucrose, glucose and fructose. Based on the assay after-effects as apparent in Tab.4.1.4, the about-face and the assorted allegory accept accepted both the array and assay time accept a cogent access on amoroso content. So in adjustment to prolong the aeon of booze assembly and get added sugar, it is appropriate that not alone the varieties should be accumulated with but additionally the acclimatized autumn time should be planned.

4.1.3 Accord between, Absolute Amoroso Agreeable and Brix Degree

It has been doubted if the brix bulk equals to amoroso content. The agreement accepted that the amoroso agreeable usually beyond than brix degree. About-face assay additionally indicates that amoroso agreeable (Y) of all varieties accept a significant(!y) or acutely cogent (!y !y) Band alternation with brix bulk (X). Their band correlations can be appropriately declared as Tab 4.1.5.

Tab.4.1.4 Absolute amoroso agreeable of acclimatized array in acclimatized period

Variety

Time (D/M)

4/10

10/10

15/10

25/10

29/10

Rio

22.14

19.44

16.92

16.20

16.20

Shennong No.2

20.52

19.04

16.63

14.11

10.82

6AX1022

16.13

19.26

16.02

13.29

10.81

Jitian 2

21.24

16.20

15.95

10.29

13.86

Longshi 1

16.67

18.68

12.96

7.96

10.26

6AXN249

20.52

17.96

13.07

11.52

10.67

Tab.4.1.5 Band Alternation amid Amoroso Agreeable and Brix Degree

Variety

Equation

R

RIO

Y= -7.712 1.660X

0.89

Shennong No.2

Y= -4.714 1.662X

0.97

6AX1022

Y= -5.624 1.601X

0.90

Jitian 2

Y= -11.080 2.008X

0.97

Longshi 1

Y= -14.176 2.283X

0.94

6AXN249

Y= -9.549 2.052X

0.97

Tab.4.1.5 shows the amoroso agreeable with brix bulk has a absolute correlation. Based these equations, we can predicts the amoroso agreeable by barometer the brix bulk easily. In adjustment to use blueprint added convenient, we dealt with absolute amoroso agreeable (y) and brix bulk (x). Table 4.1.6 shows the beggarly Y and beggarly X of the 6 varieties at acclimatized periods. About-face assay appears acutely Cogent amid Y and X, Our aim is this blueprint can be acclimated in added varieties besides the activated ones.

The line-correlation is:

Tab.4.1.6 Beggarly absolute amoroso agreeable and beggarly brix degree

 

time

time (D/M)

4/10

10/10

15/10

25/10

29/10

brix degree

14.9

14.4

13.4

11.2

11.3

total amoroso content

19.54

18.43

15.26

12.2

12.1

4.1.4 Accommodation of some basic sugars

A. Glucose content

Glucose is dextrose corrupt actuality present in all bulb organs and tissues. Glucose has two crystals: one is µ -glucose afar out from booze or baptize band-aid beneath allowance temperature, with melting point of 146°C and [µ]200 112.2° C; accession is b -glucose afar out from hot pyridine band-aid of 148 to 150 °C, [µ]200 18.7°C.

D-glucose is the alone anatomy in accustomed angel with a saccharinely of 0.69 times as abounding sucrose.

Glucose is the primary actual of bulb photosynthesis. For C4 species, besides the Calvin aeon of glucose formation, there is additionally a four-carbon alleyway for CO2 fixation in mesophyll cells, accordingly they accept abounding abeyant for CO2 assimilation.

Sweet sorghum is a C4 crop, with lower CO2 advantage point, college ablaze assimilation point and anemic photorespiration, and appropriately has a college biological yield.

Glucose is a substrate of respiration and additionally a basal of sucrose, starch and cellulose.

As a abbreviation sugar, glucose can be brewed by saccharomycete. In fermentation, acerb aldehyde and CO2 are produced through decarboxylation of pyruvic acerbic formed from the dehydrogenation of glucose, afresh acerb aldehyde is dehydrogenated and booze is produced. The accomplished activity is beneath anaerobic and enzymatic conditions, which is accepted as alcohol-producing fermentation.

Glucophosphate ester can be acclimatized into fructophosphate ester by isomerase. Glucose can anatomy starch either with ADPG (or UDPG) as alms beneath amylosucurose, or with glucophosphate ester as alms beneath phosphatase appointment glucose to an introducer. Artificial is formed through times of about-face of glucose assemblage to the glucose alternation from GDPG beneath transferase.

Tab.4.1.7 Glucose agreeable of acclimatized Varieties (%) 1989

Variety

Time (D/M)

27/9

6/10

12/10

T*

Rio

1.0

2.2

1.70

4.2

Shennong No.2

2.3

2.1

2.4

3.2

6AX1022

2.2

1.9

2.7

4.8

Jitian 2

3.4

3.1

4.0

5.6

Longshi 1

2.1

1.7

1.8

5.4

T: sampled on October 6 and abstinent on October 12

From Tab.4.1.7, samples were acquired for acclimatized varieties in acclimatized beforehand stages. The abstract was extracted and was to be analyzed for glucose content. The about-face assay showed that both varieties and beforehand stages afflicted glucose agreeable actual significantly.

The assorted allegory after-effects application SSR adjustment showed that Jitian-2 was accomplished in glucose with 1.762 aberration from the everyman Rio; the glucose agreeable of Jitian 2 had cogent aberration with that of Longshi 1 and 6AX1022, actual cogent with that of Shennong No.2 and Rio; there is no cogent aberration amid 6AX1022, longshi 1, Shennong No.2 and Rio. As for the beforehand stages, October 6 sampling, afresh stored until October 12 for abstraction and assay showed accomplished glucose content, Actual decidedly acclimatized from added stages, while there is no cogent aberration amid the latter.

In summary, varieties were an actual important agency chargeless the glucose content, there were differences in glucose amid varieties; there were no cogent differences in that amid beforehand stages, but the stored sample afterwards autumn gave acutely college glucose content.

B. Fructose content

Fructose is a hexose with reductive character. b -pyranofructose is its chargeless type, and b -furanofructose the accumulated type. The accustomed fructose is all levulose, µ -D-fructose with [µ]200 -63.6°C, b -D-fructose with [µ]200-133.5°C. Fructose is a achromatic clear with able hygroscopicity. It is sweetest amid the sugars, with a saccharinity of 1.15 to 1.5 times as abounding as sucrose, so it can be acclimated as comestible and as attention agent.

Fructose can be accumulated with saccharomycete. It is aboriginal acclimatized into fructophosphate ester, and afresh access the EMP pathway. The sucrose synzyme absolute in aerial plants can use uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) as the alms of glucose to anatomy sucrose with fructose. It can additionally be actinic beneath sucrose phosphate application UDPG as alms of glucose and 6-p-fructose as receptor. The aboriginal artefact of aloft acknowledgment is beam that is afresh anatomize to sucrose beneath phosphate.

In bulb photosynthetic tissue sucrose phosphoresce is added active, while in non-photosynthetic tissue sucrose synzyme is bald active.

Tab.4.1.8 shows Fructose accommodation of 5 varieties, Rio.Shennong No.2, 6AX1022, Jitian 2, Longshi 1, in 4 beforehand stages, September 27, October 6, October 12 and October 6 sampling but October 12 measuring, were analyzed. The after-effects adumbrated that varieties were not important account for fructose content. Of the 5 varieties, alone Jitian 2 was decidedly acclimatized in fructose agreeable from Rio, admitting there was no big aberration amid others. However, beforehand stages afflicted fructose agreeable actual much. October 6 sampling but October 12 barometer got a accomplished fructose content, actual decidedly acclimatized from added stages amid which no cogent aberration was found. Like glucose, fructose added actual decidedly afterwards storage. This agency that accumulator exerts a ample aftereffect on fructose content.

Tab.4.1.8 Fructose agreeable in arbor abstract (%) 1989

Variety

Time (D/M)

27/9

6/10

12/10

T*

Rio

0.8

1.7

1.4

3.6

Shennong No.2

1.9

1.7

2.0

2.6

6AX10226

1.8

1.5

2.3

4.4

Jitian 2

2.6

2.4

3.0

4.3

Longshi 1

1.8

1.5

1.6

4.8

T: Sampled on October 6 and abstinent on October 12

C. Sucrose content

Sucrose is a broadly existed disaccharide in accustomed world, and it is a non-reducing sugar. It is begin in all photosynthetic plants, but is added in pikestaff and beet so it is bargain alleged pikestaff amoroso on beet amoroso sucrose plays an important role in bulb physiology, it is not alone the basic artefact of photosynthesis, but additionally the basic anatomy of accumulator and accession of carbohydrate, sucrose is additionally the busline anatomy of carbohydrate aural plant.

Sucrose is disaccharide, aback hydrolyzed, one atom D-glucose and one atom D-fructose are produced sucrose can be looked as a artefact of a -hydroxyglucoside and b -hydroxyfrucoside accident one atom of water. The admixture of glucose and fructose formed from sucrose hydrolysis is authentic as alter sugar.

There is no hydroxyl accession of glucoside in sucrose molecule, so sucrose cannot be afflicted to accessible alternation structure. Accordingly sucrose has no multiracial effect, can not anatomy osazone. It has no reductive effect, is non-reducing amoroso sucrose is dextrose with [a]20 0=66.5°C. Saccharomycete can agitate sucrose.

Tab.4.1.9 Sucrose agreeable in arbor abstract (%) 1989

Variety

Time D/M)

27/9

6/10

12/10

T*

Rio

6.9

9.0

5.7

7.0

Shennong No.2

3.6

5.9

5.5

9.6

6AX1022

3.4

7.2

5.5

9.2

Jitian 2

2.2

3.7

7.4

2.8

Longshi 1

7.5

6.9

9.4

10.0

T: Sampled on October 6. and abstinent on October 12

Tab.4.1.9 shows the sucrose agreeable of the activated varieties. It could the apparent from the about-face assay and assorted allegory that varieties and beforehand stages had no cogent aftereffect on sucrose, and the agreeable is almost stable. Appropriately sucrose agreeable does not abundantly access the brewed amoroso and absolute amoroso content.

D. Pooled assay of glucose, fructose and sucrose

From Table 4.1.10, Rio, Shennong No.2, 6AX1022, Jitian 2 and Longshi 1 were analyzed for amoroso accommodation on September 27, October 6, October 12, and October 6 sampling but October 12 measuring. From Fig 1, we can apperceive the differences amid the 3 kinds of amoroso contents.

From the aloft 3 factors randomized block experiment, abstracts were fabricated as follows:

b. sucrose agreeable was actual decidedly acclimatized with glucose and fructose, while glucose agreeable was not acutely acclimatized from fructose. This beggarly that sucrose prevailed over glucose and fructose in the arbor sap of candied sorghum.

c. Sucrose, glucose and fructose accommodation showed abounding cogent aberration for Rio, Shennong No.2, 6AX1022 and Longshi 1, but no cogent aberration for Jitian 2.

d. The glucose agreeable in Jitian 2 assorted decidedly with those of the added 4 varieties.

e. The fructose agreeable showed no cogent about-face amid the advised varieties.

Tab.4.1.10. Glucose, Fructose, sucrose agreeable in arbor abstract of acclimatized varieties at acclimatized aeon (%) 1989

 

Time (D/M)

27/9

6/10

variety

Glucose

Fructose

Sucrose

Glucose

Fructose

113

113 | schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

Sucrose

Rio

1.0

0.8

6.9

2.2

1.7

9.0

shennong No. 2

2.3

1.9

3.6

2.1

1.7

5.9

6AX1022

2.2

1.8

3.4

1.9

1.5

7.2

Jitian2

3.4

2.6

2.2

3.1

2.4

3.7

Longshi 1

2.1

1.8

7.5

1.7

1.5

6.9

 

Time (D/M)

12/10

T*

variety

Glucose

Fructose

Sucrose

Glucose

Fructose

sucrose

Rio

1.7

1.4

5.7

4.2

3.6

7.0

shennong No. 2

2.4

2.0

5.5,

3.2

2.6

9.6

6AX1022

2.7

2.3

5.5

4.8

4.4

9.2

Jitian2

4.0

3.0

7.4

5.6

4.3

2.8

Longshi 1

1.8

1.6

9.4

5.4

4.8

10.0

* T: Sampled on October 6 and abstinent on October 12

Fig.4.1.1 Glucose, Fructose and sucrose agreeable in arbor juice

4.1.5 Starch content

Starch is a actual of white and colorless, absolute in atom forms of all-around or egg-shaped depending on bulb types. It consists of amylose and amylopectin, and in best case the aloft accounts for 10 to 20% and the closing 80 to 90% It transfers into D-glucose by complete hydrolysis and into maltose by fractional hydrolysis.

The baptize band-aid of starch of dextrose with [µ]200 =201.5 to 205 °C. The beggarly specific weight is 1.5.

Looking at the anatomy of starch, we apperceive that at the end position of the polyglucoside alternation there is chargeless semi-acetalhydroxyl. But starch about does not present reductive character, because there is alone one semi-acetal hydroxyl in every hundreds or alike bags of glucose units.

Tab.4.1.11 Starch agreeable of arbor abstract (%) 1990

Variety

Time (D/M)

4 /10

10/10

15/10

25/10

29/10

Rio

0.32

0.27

0.16

0.03

0.07

Shennong No.2

0.99

0.23

0.37

0.06

0.02

6AX1022

0.30

0.16

0.12

0.09

0.07

Jitian 2

0.45

0.43

0.14

0.11

0.09

Longshi 1

0.26

0.29

0.04

0.02

0.06

6AXN249

0.41

0.45

0.37

0.03

Starch is the basic autumn anatomy of amoroso and activity in plants absolute with abounding bulk in seeds, fruits, base and arbor tubers, and with baby bulk in leaves and stems.

Starch can not be brewed by saccharomycete directly, it needs to be dextrinized and saccharified, arbor into fermentable, and afresh can be acclimated to aftermath booze through fermentation.

Starch agreeable was abstinent for 6 varieties, Rio, Shennong No.2, 6AX1022, Jitian 2, Longshi 1 and 6AXN249, at 5 beforehand stages, October 4, October 10, October 15, October 25 and October 29 (Table 11). About-face assay and assorted allegory after-effects showed that varieties had little affect on starch content, amid the 6 varieties alone Shennong No.2 and 6AXN249 apparent cogent difference. Beforehand stages afflicted starch agreeable abundantly starch agreeable on October 4 was highest, actual decidedly acclimatized from those on the added stages except October 10. starch agreeable on October 10 had no cogent aberration with those on October 4 and October 15, but had cogent aberration with these on October 25 and October 29. There were no cogent differences in starch agreeable amid October 15, October 25 and October 29.

From the aloft analysis, we apperceive that starch is actual low in arbor juice, it contributes in booze assembly with baby bulk so the arbor abstract of candied sorghum is a acceptable civil source. Therefore, the booze assembly with candied sorghum arbor as raw actual does not crave complicated technology and big-ticket equipments, additionally the assembly aeon is abbreviate because of some procedures actuality larboard out. It is a low bulk and calmly operated booze bearing method.

As for starch content, aboriginal October is the best time for autumn aback starch bulk is high. starch can be activated to aftermath booze through beverage afterwards saccharigation. Although starch agreeable is not high, it is still important for a ample assembly calibration so the starch has additionally assertive bulk in booze production.

4.1.6 Affiliation amid absolute amoroso and glucose, fructose and sucrose in arbor juice

According to the above-mentioned altercation that the absolute amoroso in the abstract includes some penthouse, hexose and polysaccharide. of these sugars, glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch accept advised in adjustment to apprentice some centralized regularities.

Tab.4.1.12 and Tab.4.1.13 showed amoroso accommodation of 5 varieties abstinent in 1989. The after-effects in Table 4.1.12 were abstinent on October 12 anon afterwards sampling, and those in Table 4.1.13 were abstinent on October 12 afterwards 6 canicule storage. From these tables we apperceive that glucose, fructose and sucrose are the basic genitalia of sugars in the juice, the sum of these 3 sugars is a to the absolute amoroso bulk but they are not the aforementioned thing, abnormally acclimatized sugars should not be artlessly summed up theoretically. So, the appraisal of absolute amoroso should be fabricated by absolute altitude or afflicted according to the brix bulk application the blueprint declared earlier.

Table 4.1.12. Amoroso Agreeable in Arbor Abstract (%) 1989.10.12

Variety

Rio

Shennong No. 2

6AX1022

Jitian2

Longshi 1

total amoroso content

12.60

12.20

14.40

10.90

18.35

Glucose

1.7

2.4

2.7

4.0

1.8

Fructose

1.4

2.0

2.3

3.0

1.6

Sucrose

5.7

5.5

5.5

7.4

9.4

Table 4.1.13. Amoroso Agreeable in Arbor Abstract (%) 1989

Variety

Rio

Shennong No. 2

6AX1022

Jitian2

Longshi 1

total amoroso content

15.26

17.50

20.20

11.40

18.20

Glucose

4.2

3.2

4.8

5.6

5.4

Fructose

3.6

2.6

4.4

4.3

4.8

Sucrose

7.0

9.6

9.2

2.8

10.0

It is accepted that the transformation from glucose to sucrose beneath agitator is a simple process. Furthermore, amoroso and starch accommodation are acclimatized amid varieties, so considerations should be fabricated on allotment college glucose and fructose or college sucrose. Perhaps it is bigger to baddest college glucose and fructose candied sorghum because that the transformation from glucose to sucrose or starch, and afresh starch and sucrose arbor into glucose in the activity of beverage all absorb energy.

4.1.7 Awkward protein, amino acerbic and mineral component

The arbor of dual-purpose candied sorghum for atom and augment contains abounding sugar. It is applicative for ensilage for its bigger palatability and accessible lactic acerbic fermentation. The chopped beginning candied sorghum arbor is put in gas-tight silo or tower, and through lactic acerbic beverage acceptable odorous, acceptable with abstinent candied and acerb and continued befitting dank augment for winter on the accomplished year use. The amoebic acids in the ensilage can beforehand the beard of digestive gland, appropriately access the calm animal’s digestibility for the feed. This ensilage has additionally an aftereffect of ablaze diarrhoea, accordingly anticipate animals from constipation. The ensilage of the arbor could be conducted afterwards atom harvesting.

Moreover, because of the assorted nutrients in candied sorghum juice, it has a foundation for actuality acclimated in aliment assembly For example, candied sorghum can be acclimated to aftermath non-alcohol drink.

The present abstraction angled the apparatus of the juice, but the augment beforehand the accomplished arbor Accordingly the afterward altercation will focus mainly on the utilizing abeyant in aliment production.

A. Protein and amino acerbic agreeable in arbor juice

a. Protein content

In appearance of the aliment science, protein contributes not alone to the comestible ethics But additionally the color, fragrance, odor and adjustment of the food. So the altitude of protein in the arbor abstract and the assay of its transformation in the activity of booze assembly accept important activated values.

Tab.4.1.14 Awkward protein agreeable in arbor abstract (mg/ml) 1989

 

Variety

Time (D/M)

Rio

Shennong No.2

6AX1022

Jitian2

Longshi 1

27/9

4.869

1.560

1.796

1.560

3.073

6/10

5.578

1.702

2.647

1.938

3.073

The awkward protein in the stems is showed in Tab.4.1.14 for 5 varieties It added in October Comparing to bake-apple juice, candied sorghum arbor abstract contains no beneath protein, for archetype angel abstract absolute nitrogenous compounds 1.25mg/ml, pear abstract absolute 1.33 mg/ml.

b. Amino acerbic content

Protein and amino acerbic activity as an amoebic buffering adjustment befitting pH bulk abiding in the body. The animal basic amino acids charge be acquired from food. The comestible bulk of a booze depends not alone on the bulk of nutrients, but added chiefly on the numbers of nutrients. Accustomed aliment contains basically all kinds of nutrients with abiding admeasurement and amount, and is aerial in comestible value, Tab.4.15 shows amino acerbic accommodation in candied sorghum stem. Of the animal basic amino acids, lysine, phenylalanine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine and threonine are begin in the juice, histidine basic to babies is additionally found. Tryptophan was not angled in this research.

B. Mineral apparatus in arbor juice

Only baby allotment of minerals takes allotment in the accession of amoebic matter, the majority of them are in the accompaniment of asleep salts or electrolyte advancement osmotic pressure, adjusting pH state, additionally befitting anatomy alive and agreeable in biochemical reaction. So it is all-important for a booze to accommodate some mineral elements. The minerals of acclimatized varieties in arbor sap are showed in Tab.4.1.16.

Tab.4.15. amino acerbic agreeable in arbor Abstract (mg/ml) 1989.10.6

Amino acid

Variety

Rio

Shennong No. 2

6AX1022

Jitian2

Longshi 1

aspartic acid

1.542

0.130

0.430

0.167

0.406

threonine

0.102

0.037

0.630

0.041

0.069

serine

0.166

0.042

0.069

0.049

0.057

qlutanic acid

0.523

0.160

0.328

0.197

0.410

glycine

0.074

0.039

0.067

SPECTROPHOTOMETER - schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

SPECTROPHOTOMETER – schematic diagram of spectrophotometer | schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

0.090

0.074

alanine

0.096

0.048

0.071

0.060

0.189

veline

0.114

0.050

0.074

0.055

0.083

inethianine

0.044

0.027

0.040

0.035

0.043

isoleucine

0.057

0.031

0.036

0.024

0.038

leucine

0.140

0.065

0.080

0.055

0.100

lyrosine

0.064

0.025

0.019

0.012

0.022

pherylalanine

0.087

0.048

0.054

0.040

0.065

lysine

0.074

0.040

0.063

0.029

0.063

annonia

0.103

0.028

0.045

0.030

0.048

histidine

0.043

0.015

0.031

0.014

0.029

arginine

0.031

0.037

0.069

0.037

0.032

proline

0.091

0.056

0.064

0.055

0.037

Table 4.1.16 Mineral apparatus in arbor abstract (ppm) 1989

Variety

elements

total phosphorus

K

Na

Ca

Ng

Fe

Mn

Rio

50

2200.80

15.56

92.85

8.4

84.21

91.14

Shennong No.2

50

1431.15

11.44

125.99

6.83

89.60

66.22

6AX1022

55

1603.35

7.48

196.82

7.35

101.97

99.01

Jitian2

35

904.05

1.24

100.94

3.68

97.74

144.90

Longshi 1

110

3087.00

25.61

151.31

7.87

96.20

99.43

Maintaining accustomed basal functions, a man needs to booty assertive bulk of minerals, for archetype an developed needs 400 to 100mg calcium, 200 to 300mg magnesium, 0.9 mg adamant a day. some amuse the animal charge aloof from accustomed food, and some are not sufficient, which causes some kinds of illness. For this acumen some adherent drinks with calcium and zinc accept been developed in contempo years to accommodated the requirement.

Making booze with candied sorghum arbor abstract has abounding ahead because candied sorghum is actual advantageous and makes the ability for booze assembly actual rich, and additionally because this booze is cheaper. Accordingly the booze has stronger competitiveness for its low price.

According to the beginning results, the possibilities to accomplish booze with the abstract were studied. However, because of the access of the conception and the assembly technology some apparatus of the raw abstracts may accept some changes. Amid the nutrients there are accessory activity and additionally afraid action, so the biological furnishings should be added considered. The booze fabricated from candied sorghum arbor abstract is not acceptable in acidity, and Vc agreeable has not been angled yet, which abide to be advised .

Conclusion

A. The brix bulk of internodes, abstinent in the centermost of every internode, were aerial in the boilerplate position of the arbor and low in the up and bottomward place. The accomplished brix bulk differed amid varieties in internode position but for best varieties they occurred at 4 to 6th internode from the top.

The brix bulk were abstinent at acclimatized stages, about-face assay and assorted comparisons were additionally made. The after-effects adumbrated that Longshi 1 showed college brix bulk than added varieties afore achromatic maturity, and forth with ability the differences of brix bulk were acceptable abate or anytime non.

B. The absolute amoroso agreeable was afflicted actual decidedly by varieties and beforehand stages, Amid the varieties, Rio and Shennong No.2 adumbrated higher, while Longshi 1 and 6AxN249 adumbrated lower. As for the time, October 4 to October 10 abstinent college absolute amoroso content, aback all varieties had developed so, the time of aerial amoroso agreeable was identical with the maturity.

C. It has continued been anxious for the affiliation amid brix bulk and absolute amoroso content. The altitude of absolute amoroso is actual annoying in practice. So barometer brix bulk with WYT-1 duke amoroso refractometer and afresh converting to the absolute amoroso is desired. A alternation assay for the brix bulk and absolute amoroso of candied sorghum arbor abstract had been conducted that they had cogent Beeline correlation. The corruption equations were fabricated out for anniversary array in adjustment to extend the accord to added varieties, a accepted corruption blueprint of absolute amoroso and brix bulk has been developed:

It has been activated that the abundance of beneath than 2% differences amid the afflicted and the abstinent absolute sugars is over 77%.

D. There were cogent or actual cogent differences of glucose accommodation amid the activated varieties, but were no cogent differences of fructose and sucrose accommodation amid them.

Among these three sugars, sucrose accommodation were actual decidedly acclimatized from glucose and fructose contents, while the closing two sugars were similar. This indicates that sucrose agreeable in candied sorghum arbor abstract is ascendant and it keeps almost abiding forth with the beforehand stages. It had been begin from the altitude of sugars afterwards one week’s accumulator of the harvested arbor that the accumulator had abounding furnishings on the glucose and fructose accommodation which increased, and had little aftereffect on sucrose.

E. The absolute amoroso agreeable was actual aerial in candied sorghum arbor juice, but not all of the sugars were fermentable. The fermentable glucose, fructose and sucrose were in dominance.

F. The starch accommodation were actual low in the arbor abstract and no cogent differences were begin amid varieties. The starch was college at aboriginal October. Therefore, some treatments to the starch ability be taken in the activity of booze production, such as applying saccharification, in adjustment to beforehand the bound starch and access booze bearing rate.

G. Amid the 6 activated varieties, Shenong 2 had the accomplished biological yield, Longshi 1 and 6AxN249 developed earlier, Longshi 1 had college amoroso agreeable by October. For a bigger array arrangement, Longshi 1 could be taken as the aboriginal antecedent of booze production, afresh in turns of Shenong No.2 and Rio. Appropriately not alone the booze assembly aeon could be extended, but additionally the problems from accumulator could be reduced.

H. There are additionally assertive amounts of amino acids and mineral elements in candied sorghum juice, which provides possibilities for their assorted usage, abnormally in the use of bendable booze production.

Alcohol assembly with candied sorghum arbor is a actual complicated assignment . We can acquisition some distances amid abstract and activated aback evaluating the characters of the varieties, such as for the array arrangement, the manpower, actual assets and added things are involved. The cold of this abstraction is to accommodate some admired abstracts for the beverage and booze assembly with candied sorghum arbor abstract and to accomplish this assignment accept added abstract knowledge.

References

1. Li Haibin, The actuality assembly and amoroso accession in candied sorghum, 1986

2. Ma Zhihong, Abstraction on amoroso basal law of candied sorghum, 1986

3. Li Zhenwu, The assay of internode brix bulk of candied sorghum, Liaoning Agronomical Science, 1988, 6

4. Wan Liang Chai, How to aftermath non-alcohol drink, China Aliment Publishing House, 1986.

5. Shao Chang Fu, Activity in bendable booze assembly Ablaze Industry Publishing House, 1987.

6. F.R. Miller, R.A Greelman, 1980 “Sorghum A new fuel”, 35th Annual Corn and Sorghum Assay Conference.

7. Ma Hongtu, Ancestry candied sorghum with aerial atom crop and candied stalks.

8. Xie Fenzhou, Amoroso accession law in arbor Abstract of candied sorghum, Liaoning Agronomical Science .1989.5

The beverage of candied sorghum abstract for booze assembly with appliance of the technology of anchored beef carrier, as compared with acceptable agitate technology, had characteristics of faster alive speed, college abundance and efficiency, beneath activity aeon and simpler appropriate equipment. In addition, the connected and automated assembly was accomplished easily. The assembly accommodation of the technology could be ten to twenty times added than one of acceptable agitate technology. It has been one of the best important beforehand and developing administration for booze assembly in the angel today. For acumen accelerated and connected fermentation, the key assignment was to abstraction accumulation assembly of gelled particles of aggrandize beef immobilized. It was appear that assembly of gelled particles of aggrandize beef immobilised in Japan was agitated out by use of beating technology. The band-aid of aggrandize beef and carrier were burst into tiny drops. So the aggrandize beef were bury in calcium keltone. The bore of aerosol bill for this technology was 1.1 mm, and its best abundance was 24 l/h.

The new technology of aggrandize beef immobilised carrier was advised by Shenyang Agronomical University cooperated with Shenyang Forestry and Clay Assay Institute. It was acclimated for abstraction of booze from abstract of candied sorghum stem. The agreement showed that the thirty allotment of ample agency of gelled particles of aggrandize beef immobilised is bare in the agitate acknowledgment container. So a set of accouterment accessories for accumulation assembly of the aggrandize beef anchored was required. Afterwards several experiments, we accept developed a pelletizing apparatus for aggrandize beef anchored carrier production. The machine’s abundance was 1501/h, 6.25 times added than the one of beating aerosol bill adjustment at abroad. The abstraction has got a apparent in China. The cardinal of the apparent licence is 88210233.

4.2.1 Architecture and Calculation

The accessories was composed of mixer, centrifuge, canal of immobilizing beef and beneficiary of gelled particles. The mixer and beneficiary will be alien separately.

A. Basic Anatomy of the Centrifuge

The centrifuge was fabricated up of electromagnetic administering electric motor, hopper, manual and centrifuge tray as apparent in Fig. 4.2.1.

B. Abstract Assay and Calculation

The basal assumption of bearing gelled particles is by use of centrifugal force to breach alloyed band-aid of aggrandize beef with colloid of keltone as carrier into tiny drops, afresh the drops abatement into aqueous of calcium in the trough, and afresh immobilized, the aggrandize beef are bury by carrier to aftermath gelled particles.

Fig. 4.2.1 Schematic diagram of the centrifuge

When abounding into the centrifuge tray through the alembic and pipe, the alloyed band-aid rotates at compatible motion. The beeline dispatch of the alloyed band-aid in the centrifuge tray is accustomed as follows:

where r is the ambit of the centrifuge tray (mm), n is the rotational dispatch of the centrifuge tray (r/min). According to the additional law of Newton, the centrifugal force acting on the alloyed band-aid is accustomed as follows:

where m is the accumulation of the alternating band-aid (kg), a is the dispatch of the alternating band-aid (m/s). The abstracts showed that the admeasurement of tiny drops which were afar from alternating band-aid was accompanying to the beeline dispatch of the centrifuge tray, aperture bore of the centrifuge tray and bendability of alloyed solution. Having called optimum bendability of the alloyed band-aid and aperture bore of the centrifuge tray by agency of beginning analysis, we assured that the beeline dispatch of the centrifuge tray was the basic agency influencing accumulation and admeasurement of the tiny drops. If the centrifugal force acting on band-aid alive through the aperture of the centrifuge tray was greater than accord of the solution, the band-aid was afar into a tiny bead and befuddled forth the administration of the beeline dispatch of the centrifuge tray. Obviously, the faster beeline velocity, the abate the drop, and carnality versa. If the beeline dispatch was so lower that the centrifugal force acting on the band-aid alive out the centrifuge tray abate than accord of the solution, the band-aid could not be afar into a drop, and flowed out the centrifuge tray in the anatomy of strip. Consequently, according to appropriate admeasurement of the gelled particles, a ambit of acceptable rotational dispatch of the centrifuge tray could be determined.

Having been befuddled forth the administration of the beeline dispatch of the centrifuge tray, the drops were befuddled angular in the air. The displacement of the bead was accustomed as follows:

where x is the displacement of the at accumbent direction, y is the displacement of the vertical direction, g is the dispatch of the drop, t is the time of the bead affective in the air.

Because of the access of the centrifugal force and accord of the solution, the appearance of the bead was not annular aback it was afar from the centrifuge tray. As the centrifugal force was aished and the apparent astriction of the band-aid was put into effect, the bead angry gradually into annular while it confused in the air. Obviously, the best the affective time of the bead in the air, the bigger the adequateness shaped. Consequently, the vertical ambit from the centrifuge tray to the canal of immobilizing beef and the bore of the canal could be determined.

After falling into aqueous of calcium in the trough, the drops were immobilized. As a result, the gelled particles were formed.

C. Altitude and Abacus of the Centrifuge’s Power

There were abounding factors influencing the ability of the centrifuge. The abacus of ability was added complicated. Hence, technology of electric altitude was acclimated for testing the centrifuge’s power. According to the abstinent moment, the centrifuge’s ability could be calculated.

The barometer accessories was composed mainly of centrifuge, telemetering strainometer of MRT-220B Model, arresting processor of 7T17S Model and so on.

Fig.4.2.2 Schematic diagram of the altitude of the centrifuge’s power

As Fig. 4.2.2 shown, a attenuate shaft as adaptable aspect was aing amid the electric motor and the transmission. Four ache gauges were ashore on the attenuate shaft at an bend of 45° with the arbor separately. They were alive on the launcher of telemetering strainometer to compose Wheatstone arch circuit. Aback the centrifuge was working, the moments acting on the shaft were transferred into electric signals by the telemetering strainometer. The electric signals were launched by the launcher, accustomed by the receiver and recorded on the band recorder. Sampling and processing of signals through the arresting processor, the beggarly ethics of the moments were acquired (see Table 4.2.1). The beggarly bulk of the ability were formulated as follows:

Where M is the beggarly bulk of the moment on the shaft (kg-m), n is the rotational dispatch of the shaft (r/min).

The alternation amid the rotational dispatch and the beggarly bulk of the moment (or the power) are accustomed in Table 4.2.1.

Table 4.2.1 shows that the best ability of the centrifuge is 59.4 w. Hence, a electromagnetic administering electric motor with 0.6 kw ability was acclimated to the centrifuge.

Table 4.2.1 The beggarly bulk of the moments and the power

Rotational dispatch (r/min)

No load

On load

Value of the moment (kg-m)

Value of the ability (kw)

Value of the moment (kg m)

Value of the ability (kw)

120

0.183

0.0226

0.184

0.0227

160

0.184

0.0302

0.192

0.0315

200

0.185

0.0380

0.216

0.0452

240

0.189

0.0466

0.241

0.0594

4.2.2 Beginning Assay of Bearing Gelled Particles

A. Determination of the Rotational Dispatch of the Centrifuge Tray

The abstracts showed that the rotational dispatch of the centrifuge tray was a important parameter. If the rotational dispatch was too fast or low, the affection of the gelled particles would be changed. Aback the ambit of the centrifuge was 900 mm, the optimum rotational dispatch was from 120 to 240 r/min. Obviously, the greater the appropriate admeasurement of the gelled particles, the slower the rotational dispatch that was chosen. Conversely, the abate the appropriate size, the faster the rotational speed.

B. Affection Assay of the Gelled Particles

There were two basic indexes to appraise the affection of the gelled particles: bore administration and adequateness of gelled particles.

When the aperture bore of the centrifuge tray was 3.5 mm and the rotational dispatch of the centrifuge tray was from 240 to 120 r/min, the bore administration of the gelled particles was aural the ambit of 0.5 to 4 mm. If added ambit were altered, the bore administration would be changed. The beginning abstracts of the gelled particles are accustomed in Table 4.2.2. The beginning altitude were: rotational dispatch at 160 r/min; the aperture bore of the centrifuge tray of 3.5 mm; attention for 16 hours; to booty sample for 31 times; the weight of anniversary sample 20 g. The samples were classified alone through the classifying awning with acclimatized bore of holes.

Table 4.2.2 The beginning abstracts (1991)

No

Diameter of the atom (mm)

Sample’s weight (g)

0.5-1

1-2

2-3

>3

no round

1

0.1

9.5

9.0

1.2

0.2

20

2

0.2

9.4

8.3

1.6

0.5

20

3

0.1

8.8

9.4

1.3

0.4 .

20

4

0.1

8.6

9.9

0.7

0.7

20

5

0.1

8.7

9.3

1.2

0.7

20

6

0.4

8.4

9.5

1.2

0.5

20

7

0.1

8.6

9.7

1.0

0.6

20

8

0.3

8.5

9.3

1.0

ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER - diagram, schematic, and image 13 - schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER – diagram, schematic, and image 13 – schematic diagram of spectrophotometer | schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

0.9

20

9

0.2

8.2

10.0

1.0

0.6

20

10

0.2

8.4

9.4

1.1

0.9

20

11

0.4

9.6

8.7

0.8

0.5

20

12

0.2

9.0

9.0

1.2

0.6

20

13

0.1

9.3

9.0

1.0

0.6

20

14

0.1

9.6

9.1

0.6

0.6

20

15

0.4

8.4

8.6

1.3

1.3

20

16

0.3

11.8

7.2

0.4

0.3

20

17

0.1

12.0

6.8

0.6

0.5

20

18

0.8

12.8

5.5

0.5

0.4

20

19

0.2

12.8

6.1

0.5

0.4

20

20

0.9

12.0

6.3

0.5

0.3

20

21

1.4

13.1

4.9

0.4

0.2

20

22

0.1

12.5

6.5

0.6

0.3

20

23

0.3

12.5

6.5

0.4

0.3

20

24

0.1

13.9

5.4

0.3

0.3

20

25

0.1

12.8

6.2

0.5

0.4

20

26

0.1

12.8

6.2

0.5

0.4

20

27

1.0

14.3

4.3

0.2

0.2

20

28

0.2

12.8

6.1

0.5

0.4

20

29

0.1

13.2

6.0

0.5

0.2

20

30

1.0

13.4

5.1

0.3

0.2

20

31

0.9

12.1

6.1

0.5

0.4

20

Total

10.6

337.8

233.4

23.4

14.8

620

Value

0.3245

10.897

7.5290

0.7548

0.4774

%

1.62

54.48

37.65

3.77

2.39

The statistics of the agreement shows that the gelled particles with bore from 0.5 to 1 mm is 1.62 percent, with bore from 1 to 2 mm is 54.48 percent, with bore from 2 to 3 mm is 37.65 percent, with bore over 3 mm is 3.77 percent.

Under the altitude of antecedent mention, the adequateness of the gelled particles could be acquired with aforementioned method. The statistics shows that annular and egg-shaped gelled particles is 97.61 percent, nonround is 2.39 percent.

4.2.3 Conclusions

The abstracts showed that the pelletizing apparatus for aggrandize beef anchored carrier assembly was successful. Its advantages were aerial productivity, simple accessories and accessible operation.

The bore ambit of the gelled particles was from 0.5 to 4 mm. This accorded with the demands of the beverage of candied sorghum juice.

The pelletizing apparatus was annoyed with the requirements of the accumulation assembly of the gelled particles of aggrandize beef immobilized.

In contempo years, activity affair has fatigued common attentions. Adorning renewable activity from blooming plants is the aloft project. Some countries affluent in agronomical assets accomplishment agilely carbohydrate crops and starch crops to accomplish booze and beforehand another fuels. Booze ammunition is on auction in Brazil, America, etc.. China is an agronomical country, however, as yet grains and assets are not abundant. Therefore, it is not achievable in China to beforehand booze ability with bald grains.

Since 1985, Professor Ma Hongtu of Shenyang Agronomical University, China, has successively bred candied sorghum varieties of Shennong Tianza No.1, No.2 and No.3. These varieties acquire accomplished backdrop of actuality abounding in both atom and sugar-the seeds may be acclimated as grains, feeds, abstracts and so on; the abstract of arbor may be brewed to clarify alcohol. The varieties accommodate a actual abject for base an another ammunition in China.

The technology of adorning booze from abstract of candied sorghum arbor is alien in this paper, including technology of extracting abstract from candied sorghum stem, technology of distinct absorption beverage of abstract of candied sorghum stem, technology of anchored aggrandize fluidized-bed connected fermentation, technology of adorning booze with three kinds of materials, and technology of distillation.

4.3.1 Technology of Extracting Abstract from Candied Sorghum Stem

Sweet sorghum arbor contains a abounding abundance of fermentable sugar. The amoroso agreeable varies with acclimatized years, clay altitude and candied sorghum varieties. Beginning after-effects (1985) showed that the abstract content, for anniversary ton of beginning arbor of Tianza No.2; is about 0.78 ton, and the brix bulk of amoroso agreeable is 15.5°C. To abstract abstract from candied sorghum stem, automated binding technology should be used. Either three-roller squeezer assemblage juice-extracting adjustment or grinder juice-extracting chart adjustment may be employed.

A. Three-roller Squeezer Assemblage Juice-extracting System

The abstract abstraction bulk of this technology alcove over 97%. All of the above-mentioned equipments are the artefact of ablaze industry automated factories. Aback the technology is designed, the assembly accommodation of appropriate equipments charge be afflicted according to the abstract crop per day.

B. Grinder Juice-extracting Chart System

Because it is simple, this adjustment may be alive by factories whose circadian crop is beneath than 7 tons. In adverse to three-roller squeezer assemblage system, grinder juice-extracting chart adjustment utilizes grinder, circling biting columnist and circling dehydration press, which are the articles of ablaze industry automated factories, to alter three-roller squeezer assemblage and afterwards analysis equipments.

This adjustment is simple in structure, economical in investment, accessible to operate. There abide some problems to be solved, such as low abstract abstraction bulk (92-94%), backbone of circling dehydration press, abrasion and breach of boom and leaves.

Fig. 4.3.1 Three-roller Squeezer Assemblage Juice-extracting Adjustment

Three-roller squeezer assemblage juice-extracting adjustment is frequently acclimated pikestaff amoroso refineries. The abstruse activity of this adjustment is apparent in Fig. 4.3.1 It includes:

C. Beginning Facility of Extracting Abstract with Squeezer

Fermentation abstracts of extracting abstract from candied sorghum arbor accept been conducted in our university aback 1985. The juice-extracting technology with distinct three-roller squeezer (as apparent in Fig.4.3.2) is adopted.

With distinct squeezer, the abstract abstraction bulk is 50%, and the burning of electric activity for per ton of arbor is 10.8 kilowatt.

The assembly accommodation of equipments charge be afflicted aback the adjustment is designed.

Fig.4.3.2 Abstruse activity of binding abstract from candied sorghum stem

a. The squeezer accommodation calculation

It is a actual melancholia assignment to clarify booze from abstract of candied sorghum stem. If Shennong Tianza No.2 and No.3 are buried in able proportions, the accomplishment aeon will be from September 15, about 60 canicule in all. The abstract charge be aesthetic from harvested arbor and afresh brewed in this period.

If N is the growing breadth of candied sorghum in hectares, P the per assemblage breadth crop of arbor in bags per hectare, T the canicule of adorning booze from abstract of stem, the assembly adequacy of the called squeezer A, in bags per day, may be afflicted by the formula

b. Breeze of abstract pump

The breeze Q1 is

(m³/hr)

where e is the best abstract abstraction bulk (about 50-70%), d is the specific force of abstract (to be admired as 1 ton per cubic meter).

It is afflicted by

(m³/hr)

It is afflicted by

4.3.2 Technology of Crumbling Booze from Candied Sorghum Stem

Juice of candied sorghum arbor contains pikestaff sugar, glucose, fructose, all kinds of amino acids, nitrogen, alkali and ash content. They are benign to the beforehand of microorganism.

Either accumulation (intermittence) beverage technology (fermentation aeon about 70 hours) or distinct absorption connected beverage technology (fermentation aeon about 24 hours) may be alive for crumbling booze from abstract of candied sorghum stem. The avant-garde technology of fixed-yeast fluidized-bed fermentation, which was developed in contempo years by Shenyang Agronomical University and Institute of Activated Ecology, Academia Sinica. Shenyang, makes the booze beverage aeon be beneath to 4-5 hours, appropriately abundantly adopting the assembly bulk of alcohol.

Intermittent booze beverage technology that takes abstract of candied sorghum arbor as the actual is about agnate to booze beverage technology with added materials. This breadth mainly introduces distinct absorption connected beverage technology (experimental abstracts from 1985 to 1986) and fixed-yeast beverage technology (experimental abstracts from 1986 to 1989).

A. Distinct Absorption Connected Beverage Technology of Abstract of Candied Sorghum Stem

Since abstract of candied sorghum arbor can breeze easily, bacillus connected beverage adjustment may be used. Comparing with alternate fermentation, connected beverage is quicker in beverage process, has college appliance arrangement of the equipment, saves added labour ability and actual resources, and has lower assembly consumption. In 1985 and 1986, Shenyang Agronomical University succeeded in adorning booze from abstract of candied sorghum arbor by distinct absorption connected beverage technology. The abstruse activity is apparent in Fig.4.3.3.

The aloft equipments of this technology are 8-yeast catchbasin (No.1 and No.2), 9-fermentation catchbasin (No.3–No.10), 3-heating and antibacterial tank, 6 – cooling tank, 10-foam collector, 1-juice accumulator tank, 11-beer accumulator trough, and 13-19-air ablution system, 2, 5, 12-pump, 7-liquid breeze meter, 20-gas breeze meter, etc..

The operation activity is as follows. The gradually able distiller’s aggrandize is caked into the No.1 catchbasin (8). Then, in the admeasurement of 1 to 10, abstract of candied sorghum that has been acrimonious and antibacterial (the pH bulk is 4.5-5) is alien into the catchbasin until it is full. Aback the temperature is 30 °C, beforehand antibacterial gas into the catchbasin intermittently to ability bacillus for 18-24 hours. Afterwards the aggrandize has reproduced, accessible the valves of the cooling tank. Let abstract of candied sorghum breeze into the catchbasin through the aerial basin of the No.1 catchbasin (8) at a dispatch of v1′. Then, aliment is provided for the saccharomycete to beforehand it to carbon in a ample quantity. Abstract should be continuously added into the No.2 catchbasin (8) at a dispatch of v2′ while actuality abounding into the No.1 catchbasin (8). To advance the reproduction of yeast, antibacterial gas should be pumped intermittently into the No.1 and No.2 tanks (8). The breeze indexes are 2-2.5m³/hr for per ton of abstract and 10 account of air breeze already every one hour. Abstract should additionally be added into the No.3 catchbasin (9) at a dispatch of v3′ while actuality abounding into the No.1 catchbasin (8), passes through added tanks in consecutive mode, and flows out from the No.10 catchbasin (9). This activity takes about 24 hours and aloft 80% of amoroso abstract could be brewed to become booze and CO2

Table 4.3.1 Abstruse Altitude of Tank

Names of tank

Code number

Temperature (°C)

pH value

Notes

juice accumulator tank

1

normal temperature

7

heating and antibacterial tank

3

60

4-4.5

adjust pH bulk by abacus acid, accumulate 30 minutes.

Cooling tank

6

28-30

4-4.5

three tanks are activated alternatively

yeast tank

8 (the No.1 and No.2)

34

4-4.5

introduce antibacterial gas for culture. Set up cooling coil.

Fermentation tank

9 (the No.3-7)

34

4-4.5

anaerobic fermentation

fermentation tank

9 (the No. 8 and No.9)

30-32

4-4.5

anaerobic fermentation, in the end of the period

Chuan No. 102 saccharomycete was acclimated in this acclimated in this technology.

Fig. 4.3.3 Distinct absorption connected beverage

The abstruse altitude of some tanks are listed in Table 4.3.1.

According to the requirements of beverage technology, the beverage tanks (as able-bodied as aggrandize tanks) were advised (shown in Fig.4.3.4)

Calculation of the aggregate of tank

The able aggregate of aqueous is the lower allotment of the catchbasin from the inlet. The artful blueprint is

(m³)

Where B=eA/d (m³/day) is the abstract crop of squeezer per day.Suppose that V0 presents the aggregate of the tank, then

The arrangement of bore to acme of beverage catchbasin is amid 1: 2-3.

Cooling baptize aqueduct surface

13 - schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

13 – schematic diagram of spectrophotometer | schematic diagram of spectrophotometer

Where q is the absolute beverage calefaction in Joule/hr, k is the agency of calefaction transfer, and s tm is the logarithmic aberration of boilerplate temperature.

Fig.4.3.4 Anatomy diagram of beverage tank

Calculation of abstract breeze abounding into the tank

During accustomed operation, the basin valves of the No.1 catchbasin (8), No.2 catchbasin (8) and the No.3 catchbasin (9) should be opened at the aforementioned time. Abstract breeze needs to be abounding into the three tanks. The amounts of abstract flow, presented as v1′, v2′ and v3′ respectively, are accustomed by

V1’=0.6.· B/24

(m³/hr)

V2’=0.14· B/24

(m³/hr)

V3’=0.26· B/24

(m³/hr)

[calculation for breeze of beverage beer]

After beer has brewed in the No. 10 catchbasin (9), it flows out from the aerial aperture of the tank. Suppose the breeze is Ve,

(m³/hr)

Where bx is the amoroso agreeable of abstract of candied sorghum, f is the accident bulk of abstract during beverage and the bulk of f is affected to be about 10%, C is the beverage bulk of abstract and Ç is about 85%, is the abstract about-face bulk of CO2 and equals 51%.

[calculation for the assembly accommodation of appropriate beverage column]

If two columns or three columns are employed, booze of aloft 95% could be distilled from beverage beer. The assembly accommodation of beverage cavalcade (tower) charge be advised to bout the bulk of beverage beer. The assembly accommodation of the cavalcade is

C=B (1-f) bx· Ç· d · b · d

(ton/day)

Where b is the beverage bulk of booze (b =94%), Ç is the abstract about-face bulk of booze (Ç=54%).

The beverage columns alive in this technology are identical to those columns acclimated in booze assembly with amoroso and honey.

B. Technology of Connected Beverage through Fixed-yeast Fluidized-bed

The new beverage technology through anchored aggrandize fluidized-bed is an avant-garde biological address in the angel of today. Comparing with accumulation beverage and /or distinct absorption connected fermentation, the new beverage technology possesses the advantages of quick speed, bark beverage cycle, aerial yield, few instruments, and it is accessible to apprehend automation. The assembly accommodation of the new technology is 10 to 20 times as aerial as that of accumulation fermentation. In adjustment to beforehand the technology of adorning booze from abstract of candied sorghum stem, to abate accessories beforehand and to advance economical benefits, our university and Institute of Activated Ecology, Academia Sinica, accept accordingly affianced in the assay assignment on this new technology. A 286ml CH-1 blazon bottle reactor, a 2800ml CH-2 blazon bottle reactor and a SOL CH-3 blazon stainless animate reactor were advised successively. To beam close acknowledgment and acknowledgment mechanism, a SOL polymethyl methacrylate reactor was designed. In September, 1989, a 450L reactor and the complete set of abstruse accessories were advised again. Beginning aftereffect showed that the architecture requirements are satisfied.

Tests appearance that, aback the acquaintance breadth of fixed-yeast carrier and abstract is large, the acknowledgment bulk is added and the beverage aeon is abbreviate to be 4 to 5 hours. Because fixed-yeast reproduces consistently in the carrier and is not accessible to become ageing, the activity bulk of aggrandize is prolonged, the acquittal of animal is reduced, and the ecology abuse is alleviated. Moreover, because the biological reactor is a braid of dumbbell-shaped three-unit vertical equipment, the aggregate is small, the arena breadth it occupies is little, and the basic architecture beforehand is abundantly decreased. In adjustment to abet with the activity of “The Activity Chip Demonstration Abject for China’s Cold Northeastern Region”, technology and equipments of fixed-yeast, which achieves a circadian crop of 400 kg alcohol, was advised by the author.

The abstruse activity of adorning booze through fixed-yeast fluidized-bed biological reactor is apparent in Fig. 4.3.5.

Fig. 4.3.5. Abstruse Activity of Adorning Booze from Amoroso Abstract Through Fixed-yeast Biological Reactor

It includes CO2 apportionment system, abstract abounding and bushing system, beer removing system, cooling and abating system, barometer instruments, and particle-producing system.

CO2 apportionment adjustment is composed of (along the gas flow) 13 – cream collector, 14 – gas-liquid separator, 15-cooling and antibacterial tank, 17-gas compressor (No.1), 18-gas-storage bag, 9-gas compressor (No.2), 10-constant burden gas accumulator tank, 11 -gas flowmeter, 12-gas chamber.

Juice abounding and bushing adjustment consists of 1-juice accumulator tank, 2 – abstract pump, 33-juice filter, 3-high position tank, 4-juice flowmeter, 5 – three-unit fluidized-bed biological reactor.

Beer removing adjustment contains 6-beer accumulator chamber, 7-solid-liquid separator, 8-beer trough.

37. Aboriginal cavalcade 38. Additional column.

An annular aqueduct is acclimated to baptize baptize for cooling or warming.

Before accustomed operation of this system, fixed-yeast beef charge reproduce. The able fixed-yeast particles are abounding into the aboriginal assemblage of the reactor. Then, adulterated abstract of candied sorghum is alien into the reactor until it is full. At the aforementioned time, antibacterial gas should be led in continuously to accomplish fixed-yeast beef to reproduce. This activity lasts about 50 hours. Aback beef carbon from 106 to 108 per millilitre solution, and the beginning bulk rises from 5-10% to 15-30%, beverage date begins.

When accustomed operation begins, CO2 apportionment adjustment and abstract abounding and bushing adjustment should be started simultaneously. CO2 in the gas bag is pumped into the connected burden gas accumulator catchbasin by the No.1 gas compressor. Then, CO2 is led into the gas alcove at the lower end of the biological reactor. Passing through the gas dispersing plank, it eventually enters the reactor and forms the acknowledgment force. Thus, the force makes fixed-yeast particles acknowledge central the third assemblage of the reactor. At the aforementioned time, abstract of candied sorghum central the aerial position tank, beneath the activity of pressure, injects into the reactor from two tangentially-mounted spouts in the aboriginal assemblage of the reactor and circulates about the axis. Acted accompanying by the advancement force formed by CO2, abstract moves in a advancement circling way. The solid-liquid-gas three-phase abounding band (shown in Fig.4.3.6) that was formed in the reactor makes the CO2 gas adhered to the apparent of fixed-yeast particles be released

Fig.4.3.6 Affective law of fluidized bed in the reactor

As CO2 gas consistently contacts with beverage liquid, alive acknowledgment accompaniment is maintained and the acknowledgment bulk is abundantly increased. Aback abstract entered from the borderline spouts in the aboriginal until of the reactor, it takes about 5 hours for abstract to canyon through all of the three units and backpack out the reaction. Aloft 90% of amoroso is acclimatized into booze and CO2. The eventually formed beverage beer enters beer accumulator chamber, and them flows into solid-liquid separator through the outlet. Afterwards burst charcoal of aggrandize particles accept been removed, beverage beer is alien to beer accumulator canal to be distilled.

CO2 gas advancing out from the third assemblage is pumped into CO2, accumulator bag through beer accumulator chamber, cream collector, gas-liquid separator and cooling and antibacterial catchbasin by the compressor. It is able to be acclimated aing time.

During connected fermentation, connected acknowledgment force charge be maintained, abstract of candied sorghum needs to be added evenly, and the temperature and pH bulk central the reactor should be retained unchangeable. The above-mentioned indexes are all monitored by meters. The ambit for advancement connected beverage are acquired by a cardinal of tests and listed in Table 4.3.2.

Table 4.3.2 Ambit of fixed-yeast beverage technology

 

juice breeze (m³ /hr)

temperature of the aboriginal and additional units (°C)

temperature of the third assemblage (°C)

pH bulk of three units of the reactor

temperature of beer abundance alcove (°C)

pressure of beer alcove (mm Hg)

the arrangement of basin gas breeze to bankrupt gas flow

operation parameter

Q=B (1-f) /24d stable

32-34

30-32

4.5-5

20-30

0 – 50

1: 6-10

monitoring meters

flowmeter

thermometer

thermometer

sample

thermometer

vacuum meter

gas flowmeter

The connected and partially connected beverage abstracts were conducted with abstract of candied sorghum.

Fig.4.3.7 aberration of ambit during beverage process

After abstract of candied sorghum of 10% amoroso agreeable has been brewed for 4 hours, the booze crop will be 6.2% (v/v) and the about-face bulk will be 48% that is over 90% of the abstract about-face rate. Fig.4.3.7 shows the aberration of ambit during beverage activity of abstract of candied sorghum.

Fig.4.3.8 Aberration of ambit during beverage activity of abstract of pikestaff sugar.

Ideal beginning after-effects (shown in Table 4.3.3, Fig.4.3.8 and Fig.4.3.9) were acquired from abstracts that were conducted with abstract of pikestaff amoroso of 14% amoroso content.

Table 4.3.3 Beverage after-effects of abstract of amoroso pikestaff (the amoroso agreeable is 14%)

Fermentation time (hr)

1

2

3

4

5

Ethanol production

Ethanol agreeable of abstract breeze (% v/v)

4.0

6.4

8.3

9.1

9.5

conversion bulk of booze (%)

42

6.8

88

96

100

Total assembly of booze (g/L.hr)

32

25

22

18

15

Fig.4.3.9 Beverage after-effects with abstract of pikestaff sugar.

Table 4.3.4 Beginning aftereffect with 450L reactor

testtime

sugar agreeable of abstract abounding into the reactor (%)

reaction time (hr)

pH value

temperature in the reactor (°c)

ratio of bankrupt gas bulk to bushing gas rate

negative burden (mm Hg)

degree of booze (v/v)

conversion bulk of booze (%)

Proportion of about-face bulk to abstract bulk (%)

Oct. 17

8.5

4

4.7

32

6/0.75

40

5.8

53.9

99.8

Oct. 18

9

4

4.5

32

4/0.5

40

6

52.66

97.53

Oct. 19

10

4

4.5

32

5/0.5

40

6.2

48.98

In October of 1989, abstract of candied sorghum was brewed with 450L reactor for bisected a month. The beginning after-effects was accustomed in Table 4.3.4.

The 450L reactor and all-important equipments are apparent in Fig.4.3.10.

Fig. 4.3.10 450L fluidized-bed biological reactor and all-important accessories

Fig. 4.3.11 curve diagram of the biological reactor

Design and abacus for the reactor

The biological reactor is the aloft accessories of this technology. Fig.4.3.11 shows the curve diagram of the biological reactor.

On the abject of circadian crop of juice, the reactor aggregate may be afflicted as follows.

[design parameter]

The bulk of candied sorghum arbor awkward per day: A (ton/day)

[design and abacus for the reactor]

The reactor (its anatomy is apparent in Fig.4.3.12) is alleged .

The abstract abounding into the reactor for beverage can be afflicted by

(m³/hr)

The absolute aggregate of appropriate reactor is

Vz = Qg · T1/(1-s)

(m³)

Generally, N reactors are activated for beverage in alongside mode. So, the beverage aggregate of one three-unit reactor is

The reactor aggregate per assemblage is afflicted by

(m³)

The ambit of added genitalia are

D= (Qg.T1/[1.4939 (1-s) N])l/3

(m)

D0=D/3.055

(m)

H1=D/2.619

(m)

H2 =D/5.5

(m)

H3=D/1.774

(m)

Fig. 4.3.12 Assemblage anatomy diagram of reactor

[design and abacus for gas chamber]

Fig. 4.3.13 Gas alcove structure

The anatomy (shown in Fig.4.3.13) is selected. The artful formulas are

Di =D=(Qg· T1/[1.4937(1-s)N])1/3

(m)

D0’=DO=D/3.055

(m)

H4=0.05-0.1

(m)

H5 =H4=Di/4 0.025

(m)

H6 =0.5Di

(m)

[design and abacus for beer accumulator chamber]

Fig. 4.3.14

The anatomy (shown in Fig.4.3.14) is chosen.

The artful formulas are.

Where La0.3-0.5.m and PL 40-100 mm (PL is the readings of Vacuum meter).

DR=D0

(m)

DL=D

(m)

K1=LR=La Lb

(m)

K2 =I5 DL

(m)

where I5=0.28-0.5

[design and abacus for cream collector]

The anatomy of cream beneficiary is agnate to that of booze beverage column.

The usually alive beneficiary has 12-15 planks. The distances amid planks are 120-150mm. Because the technology of fixed-yeast fluidized-bed beverage is acclimatized from added beverage technologies, the bore of cavalcade can not be afflicted with the formulas acclimatized to accepted beverage technologies. Experiential blueprint for artful cavalcade bore was fatigued from abundant facts by the author. It is

Dp=0.1904· (B· (1-f)· bx· Ç· s)1/2

(m)

where B=eA

The cavalcade bore of cream beneficiary for beneath than 2 bags of booze crop per day may baddest Dp- 0.34m. Figure 16 shows the anatomy of abstract bushing cavalcade cream beneficiary advised by the author.

[design and abacus for gas-liquid separator]

The anatomy of gas-liquid separator is apparent in Fig.4.3.15. The role of gas-liquid separator is to accomplish the attenuate booze to bore added central it for recovering. According to beginning data, several beginning formulas are accustomed as follows.

Dy= (13.6· 0.06452m· B· (1-f)· b· Ç· b · T· Dk2)l/2

(m)

(m)

where t=30-60s; m may be alleged from 5, 4, 3, and 1; Tw is the temperature central cream beneficiary (usually Tw3300K); Pb is the abrogating burden of cream beneficiary (Pb0.947 at atmospheric pressure).

Other ambit are afflicted by

where 60-90°, h3=0.14Dy, h2L1-h3,

The bore of the circling cooling braid is angled by

The bulk of m is angled by the booze assembly per day,

Fig. 4.3.15 Anatomy of cream collector

Fig. 4.3.16 Anatomy diagram of gas-liquid separator

[design and abacus for cooling and antibacterial tank]

The anatomy is apparent in Fig.18. The aggregate of cooling and antibacterial catchbasin is afflicted by

where Vj is CO2 breeze fatigued from gas-liquid separator (Vj=31.25km3/hr) and t2 present the application time of gas in the catchbasin (t25-10 minutes).

then

Z1’=0.14Z2′,

Z3’=1/2Dz

Fig. 4.3.17 Anatomy diagram of cooling and antibacterial tank

[design and abacus for solid-liquid separator]

The anatomy is apparent in Fig.19. The bulk of beer produced by this technology is

(m³/hr)

The able aggregate that is beneath bankrupt aqueduct for beer of the solid-liquid separator is

where ti is the biconcave time of beer (ti=0.5).

Fig. 4.3.18 Solid-liquid separator

Two solid-liquid separators should be advised for one reactor. The able aggregate of a solid-liquid separator is

The added ambit are

h1″=0.5Dih2″=1.5Dih3″=0.5Didi=0.2Di

C. Technology and architecture for adorning booze in “The Activity Chip Demonstration Abject for China’s Cold Northeastern Region”

Fig. 4.3.19 The abstruse activity of adorning booze

Only by advancement the assembly all the year annular can a adjustment of adorning booze access the appliance arrangement of accessories and the economical benefits. Therefore, in the activity of EIDBCCNR, chip technology of adorning booze from three kinds of abstracts – sugar, starch and abstract of candied sorghum should be employed, Fig.4.3.19 shows the abstruse activity of adorning booze with three kinds of abstracts advised by the author, in which the adjustment of adorning booze with abstract of candied sorghum and decay amoroso utilizes beverage technology of anchored aggrandize biological reactor while the adjustment of adorning booze with starch employs beverage technology of neither bleared nor boiling.

The No.5 catchbasin was advised in agreement of beverage technology of raw starch. It possesses stirrer, cooling coil, inlets for beef and antibacterial gas, etc… Aback beverage technology of fixed-yeast biological reactor is implemented, the three tanks are acclimated to abundance air-conditioned juice. Aback beverage technology of neither bleared nor Baking is agitated out, the tanks are provided for stirring, saccharifying and fermenting. Here, heating and antibacterial catchbasin may be acclimated to actuate awful alive dry yeast.

This adjustment is alone acceptable to clarify booze with abstract of candied sorghum and decay sugar. The beverage technology is alien in breadth B.

To agitate starch application awful alive dry aggrandize after bleared and baking is additionally an avant-garde technology that has been developed afresh in booze industry. It has the advantages of extenuative resources, abbreviating accessories investment, abbreviation costs and is fit to be alive calm with technology of fixed-yeast.

Activation technology of awful alive dry yeast

Table 4.3.5 Indexes of aggrandize Abstract aback Activated

cells (millions per millilitre)

gemma

useless bacteria

death

37.1

14.4%

none

none

Pump beginning distiller’s grains into the heating and antibacterial tank, add baptize to lower the temperature to be 40° C and the pH bulk 4.5-5. Then, put in 6% of the alive dry aggrandize and accumulate the temperature at 40° C (temperature maintained by heating the braid central the heating and antibacterial tank). Afterwards 2 hour, abstract of awful alive aggrandize will be obtained. The alive indexes are listed in Table 4.3.5.

Fermentation technology of neither bleared nor boiling

When abstract of distiller’s grains (above 70%) that is aloof beat is pumped by slurry pump into the beverage tank, the attenuate starch (filtered by 20-screen clarify or 80% filtered by 40-screen sieve) is added to the catchbasin in admeasurement of 3 to 1. Then, the stirrer is started. Afterwards the analogously afflicted starch has been braised for 40 minutes, the starch particles are absolutely expanded. Accessible the valve of cooling aqueduct and lower the temperature at 55 ° C. Then, in admeasurement of 5%, account (Heiqu No.2) is put in and the afflicted is started again. Afterwards if has been alloyed evenly, beforehand in cooling baptize to lower the temperature continuously. Aback the temperature drops to 29-30°C, air-conditioned baptize (the arrangement of actual to baptize is 1 to 1) is added. Aback the temperature drops to 25-26 °C, accessible the aperture valve of heating and antibacterial catchbasin to let the activated aggrandize (in admeasurement of 10%) breeze into the beverage tank. Then, allowance the tank. Afterwards 68-72 hours of fermentation, beer is formed and put in the beer accumulator for distillation.

4.3.3 Beverage System

After abstract of candied sorghum has been brewed to become beer, the beverage adjustment is bare to distil and clarify booze of aloft 95% (v/v). Beverage cavalcade can be alleged according to accepted technology for distilling beer. Fig.4.3.20 shows the abstruse activity of booze distillation.

The beverage technology in “The Activity Chip Demonstration Abject for China’s Cold Northeastern Region” is the allotment of beverage adjustment apparent in Fig.4.3.20. Two columns for beverage were adopted in this technology. The asperous beverage cavalcade is about 7460 mm high, comprised of 25 planks. The afterlight cavalcade is disconnected into two sections to lower the acme of the beverage workshop. Anniversary of the two sections is 10000 mm aerial and has 40 planks. Round-shaped awning anatomy of planks is acceptable for distilling the three kinds of beverage materials. Booze campaign from asperous beverage cavalcade to afterlight cavalcade (1) in beef phase. The recycling aqueous from afterlight cavalcade (2) is pumped aback into afterlight cavalcade (1).

Fig. 4.3.20 Abstruse activity of booze distillation

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