For those of you who haven’t spent abundant time about the Power Achievement name, the aboriginal 14 years of its assembly (the 7.3L and 6.0L) activated a hydraulically activated, electronically controlled, assemblage injector (HEUI) ammunition system. While this bang technology, developed by Caterpillar, is advised anachronous today, it was anticipation of as a avant-garde curiosity back it was alien in 1994. Diesel agent antagonism in the mid-90s aloft bottomward to the mechanically injected, inline-six 5.9L Cummins (found in the Dodge Ram), and the underpowered, indirect-injection 6.5L V-8 from GM. The 7.3L’s complete bang ammunition commitment adjustment and electronics accustomed for computer-controlled timing advance, cleaner emissions, and the adeptness to accomplish added application and torque than the added two brands. Ford, with its alliance to International, jumped at the adventitious to action the HEUI-equipped, Navistar-built 7.3L in its ¾-ton-and-larger trucks.
So how does HEUI work? And what apparatus are involved? We’ll acknowledgment both of these questions, as able-bodied as detail the injector battlefront action in an HEUI injector. We’ll additionally action some acumen as to why the 7.3L’s HEUI arrangement was so reliable in allegory to the 6.0L’s.
High-Pressure Oil Pumps: Volume, Not PressureInstead of a accepted bang pump, HEUI systems use a high-pressure oil pump. A Bosch high-pressure oil pump (shown) graces the 7.3L Power Stroke. The seven-piston, swashplate pump is geardriven and evidently mounts to the avant-garde awning at the avant-garde of the countdown basin (its drive accessory isn’t timed to the cam or the pump). A Siemens high-pressure oil pump sits at the rear of the 6.0L, and aural the crankcase itself. It isn’t timed to the agent and is additionally a seven-piston, swashplate-style pump.
Unlike accepted bang pumps, the high-pressure oil pump does not actualize pressure. It creates a aggregate of oil for the injectors to use. The bang burden regulator (controlled by the PCM) is amenable for creating bang pressures in a ambit of 450 to 3,000 psi on 7.3L engines, and 450 to 3,600 psi on 6.0L Power Strokes.
7.3L Injector Battlefront Process1. Back the cyberbanking solenoid (A) gets activated by the IDM, it pulls the poppet valve (B) off its bench (it is captivated on its lower bench via a spring). This closes off the oil cesspool alleyway and opens up the basin for high-pressure oil.
2. High-pressure oil starts to alteration its burden through the poppet valve, on top of the intensifier agent (C). The intensifier agent has seven times added apparent breadth than the plunger, which agency 3,000 psi of ICP (injection ascendancy pressure, on the oil side) converts to 21,000 psi of ammunition bang burden (entering the agitation chamber) at wide-open throttle. Aftermarket injectors able with beyond plungers and barrels finer abate the adding force of the intensifier piston, oftentimes to 5:1 instead of the branch 7:1 ratio. A 5:1 arrangement allows an HEUI injector to breeze added ammunition after acute added oil volume.
3. The high-pressure oil on top of the intensifier agent armament the plunger (D) down, which in about-face armament the bill aggravate to lift, pressurizing the ammunition in the plunger cavity, and ultimately aperture the bill (E), sending ammunition into the agitation chamber.
4. The abandoned (F) extra at the top of the injector (from the intensifier agent and plunger accompanying acclamation downward) is afresh refilled with high-pressure oil that has been cat-and-mouse in the oil balustrade aural the alive (fed there acknowledgment to the IPR and high-pressure oil pump).
5. The bill (E) is actual agnate to a conventional-appearing nozzle, but the capital aberration is its use of a analysis ball, which seals during the downstroke of the plunger to anticipate high-pressure ammunition leakage.
* A agnate 7.1:1 (fuel to high-pressure oil) arrangement is activated in 6.0L injectors, but with the adequacy of 3,600 psi of ICP in banal form, bill pressures can beat 25,000 psi. This college burden is one acumen the 6.0L met 2003 emissions standards, while the 7.3L could not.
Oil Breeze to Injectors (first to last)
*As you can imagine, the agent oil follows a actual convoluted, diffuse aisle afore it anytime gets to the injectors. In accession to basal and top end lubrication, agent oil is awful pressurized already it’s in the high-pressure circuit.
HEUI Glossary ICP—Injection Ascendancy Pressure: This is what high-pressure oil burden is referred to aural the HEUI bang arrangement (bottom cardinal on gauge). The IPR sends ICP through the oil rails, and to the oil ancillary (or top side) of the injectors.
ICP Sensor—A bowl disc-type burden sensor, the ICP sensor provides advice to the PCM apropos the ascendancy of the high-pressure oil system. It converts burden to a 0-to-5-volt signal, which the PCM uses to actuate able bang ascendancy burden (ICP).
IPR—Injection Burden Regulator: A dump valve that converts the electrical achievement signals from the PCM to hydraulic pressure, thereby authoritative agent performance. It’s in allegation of the high-pressure oil pump’s aperture pressure, depending on demand, and in a ambit from 450 psi to 3,000 psi (and alike college in the 6.0L engine).
Duty Cycle—The allocation of time during which the IPR is active. In the HEUI system, it’s generally accustomed as a allotment (top cardinal on the gauge) and is a basal aspect to adviser during analysis or achievement applications to ensure the high-pressure oil pump is befitting up with oil demand.
PCM—Powertrain Ascendancy Module: A microprocessor, the PCM controls the complete bang system. It receives advice from the ICP sensor, assorted complete burden sensor, agent oil temperature sensor, camshaft position sensor, and several added sensors and acts accordingly.
IDM—Injector Drive Module: Additionally accepted as an FICM (fuel bang ascendancy module) in 6.0L engines, the IDM sends a precise, electric accepted to the injector solenoid. The timing and continuance are controlled by the PCM. On the 7.3L, the IDM’s beating consists of 110 volts (120 volts on after engines) beatific to animate the injector solenoid. On the 6.0L, the FICM’s beating is 48 volts.
HPOP—High Burden Oil Pump: A geardriven, hydraulic accumulation pump amenable for sending the appropriate oil aggregate through the oil rails, and for the injectors to use.
The 7.3L’s Three Stages of Injection1. Ample Cycle: In the aboriginal stage, the poppet valve is closed, the intensifier agent and plunger are positioned at the top of their bore, and the plunger atrium is abounding of pressurized ammunition (between 40 and 70 psi).
2. Injection: The PCM sends the ammunition commitment arresting (110 to 120 volts) to the IDM, the IDM sends an electric beating to the injector solenoid, and the injector battlefront action explained on folio 162 begins.
3. End of Injection: A changeabout of the additional date takes place. The PCM cancels the ammunition commitment arresting beatific to the IDM, the IDM kills the cyberbanking beating beatific to the injector solenoid, and the poppet closes, befitting any added high-pressure oil from entering the injector. Already seated, the poppet’s high acreage opens its atrium to drain, pressurized oil aloft the intensifier agent flows out the aperture holes in the poppet sleeve and out an adapter cesspool hole, and the intensifier agent and plunger move advancement (forced up by extra ammunition pressure). Afresh the arrangement is already afresh accessible for the ample cycle.
*The aforementioned basal alternation of contest occurs in the 6.0L.
FAQ: What’s the aberration amid a 15-degree and a 17-degree HPOP on the 7.3L? This catechism comes up often—mainly because 7.3L owners accept been told the 17-degree high-pressure oil pump is better. The agreement 15-degree and 17-degree appear from the bend of the swashplate. The best the achievement of the swashplate, the bigger the displacement—and the added oil aggregate it puts out. The ’94½ to ’97 and aboriginal ’99 engines all came with the abate displacement, 15-degree pump. In an accomplishment to accumulate up with the college oil demands of breach attack injectors on ’99½ to ’03 engines, the larger-displacement 17-degree pumps were used. Although the swashplate bend can alter from pump to pump—and actual hardly is a after pump absolutely a 17-degree assemblage or an aboriginal pump a 15-degree unit—these agreement accept ashore as an accessible way to call an aboriginal vs. late-model pump. All HPOPs are interchangeable, so a higher-volume, 17-degree pump will t appropriate up to an aboriginal 7.3L’s avant-garde awning and drive gear.
Poppet Valve vs. Ball Valve The primary aberration amid 7.3L and 6.0L injectors is the valve that allows high-pressure oil to access them. On a 7.3L, it’s a poppet valve (as apparent in the diagram above). On a 6.0L, it’s alleged a ball valve. Both apparatus backpack out the aforementioned function, but the ball valve’s supertight altruism works adjoin it already bedraggled oil or contaminants are introduced, affliction longevity. To be fair, the ball valve (originally advised by Sturman Industries) is far added technologically avant-garde than the poppet valve’s architecture and functionality—it’s aloof adverse it isn’t about as reliable. While the poppet valve in the 7.3L injector eventually wears out, its beyond centralized clearances accord it a best account activity (poppet valves about aftermost about 200,000 miles).
Multiple Bang Contest Emissions requirements for the 7.3L (’97 California models and all ’99 to ’03 engines), and afresh babble ascendancy on the 6.0L (early ’03 models) led to two bang contest actuality allowable per agitation event. The 7.3L accustomed breach attack injectors, which featured a cleft in anniversary plunger and barrel. Back the high- burden oil armament the plunger bottomward (courtesy of the intensifier piston) for a abbreviate aeon of time on the bottomward stroke, no ammunition is abounding (as the two notches band up and ammunition is bled off). This allows a baby attack of ammunition to be injected, afresh a beyond (main) accident occurs aloof nanoseconds later.
For the 6.0L, the bifold bang accident was performed electronically rather than mechanically. Alleged pilot injection, it was controlled by the PCM and was acclimated at abandoned in an attack to quiet bottomward the engine. Unfortunately, the injectors weren’t able to acknowledge fast abundant to backpack out pre- and main-injection events, causing asperous abandoned issues. Ford bound did abroad with the pilot bang feature.
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