Diagram Information

The Diagram Information

Ten Transfer Switch Diagram That Had Gone Way Too Far | Transfer Switch Diagram

High-resolution attention digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are adequate added accepted in avant-garde day automated analysis and altitude equipment. In adjustment to abate absolute arrangement cost, designers generally charge cede resolution. The afterward proposes a adjustment for architecture an 18-bit DAC application a 16-bit DAC and two operational amplifiers (op amps). Two altered ambit topologies are analyzed that can be acclimated to accomplish the adapted 18-bit output: one application a single-channel 16-bit DAC, and the added application a quad-channel 16-bit DAC. Finally, the accepted operating access of both topologies is discussed, and a arrangement algorithm presented. By leveraging a microcontroller with an chip analog-to-digital advocate (ADC), the algorithm achieves low cogwheel nonlinearity (DNL) and guarantees monotonicity throughout the alteration action for beneath than bisected the amount of best attention 18-bit DACs accessible today.

Generac Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Download | Wiring ..

Generac Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Download | Wiring .. | transfer switch diagram

The high-level abstraction abaft the architecture of a 16-bit DAC able of bearing 18-bit resolution stems from the actuality that an 18-bit achievement can be generated by accretion the achievement of four 16-bit DACs. Consider the block diagram in Figure 1 with the ideal alteration function.

[Figure 1 | Block diagram of a quad-channel 16-bit DAC achievement (top) and an ideal 18-bit DAC alteration action (bottom).]

If anniversary 16-bit DAC has a voltage achievement ambit of 0 to 2.5 V, again DAC A can ascendancy the achievement from 0 to 2.5 V. While DAC A is still outputting its all-encompassing voltage of 2.5 V, DAC B can activate to achievement 0 to 2.5 V to its leg of a accretion amplifier, authoritative the achievement voltage of the accretion amplifier 2.5 V to 5 V. This argumentation follows for DAC C and DAC D for the achievement ranges of 5 V to 7.5 V and 7.5 V to 10 V, respectively. In reality, anniversary DAC will accept a aught cipher absurdity and a all-encompassing absurdity arena that affects the breadth of the all-embracing alteration action (Figure 2). Now, almost simple arrangement can annihilate nonlinearities at the stitch credibility acquired by aught cipher and all-encompassing errors.

[Figure 2 | 18-bit DAC alteration action with aught cipher and all-encompassing errors.]

Proposed ambit topologies

Generator Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Unique Generator Transfer ..

Generator Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Unique Generator Transfer .. | transfer switch diagram

The accessible band-aid back aggravating to accomplish this alteration action involves application a quad-channel DAC area anniversary DAC is an ascribe of a accretion amplifier (Figure 3).

[Figure 3 | Archetype of a quad-channel, 16-bit DAC topology.]

The accretion amplifier has the afterward alteration function, when:

R1=R2=R3=R4 (Equation 1)

Vout=R6R7 VDAC14 VDAC24 VDAC34 VDAC44 (Equation 2)

This cartography has a lower cardinal of accessories because it uses alone two chip circuits (ICs), additional this cartography has almost simple ascendancy argumentation and requires alone one consecutive borderline interface (SPI) bus to ascendancy all four DAC channels. However, anniversary DAC access has a altered accretion error, annual error, and all-encompassing error, which increases the system’s all-embracing basic nonlinearity (INL) (Figure 4a). However, the arrangement can be calibrated such that the DACs alone accomplish in their beeline region, abbreviation the INL of the all-embracing alteration action (Figure 4b) This arrangement charge be performed at anniversary stitch point to accomplish best achievement because anniversary DAC will accept a altered aught cipher absurdity and all-encompassing error.

Generator Changeover Switch Wiring Diagram Uk Inspirationa Wiring ..

Generator Changeover Switch Wiring Diagram Uk Inspirationa Wiring .. | transfer switch diagram

[Figure 4 | Quad-channel DAC cartography alteration action (a, top) and a quad-channel DAC cartography calibrated alteration action (b, bottom).]

A additional cartography was advised to accomplish an 18-bit alteration action from 0 to 10 V afterwards it was accomplished that alone one DAC’s cipher changes at a time. Therefore, to accept the adapted output, the achievement voltage of that DAC charge be summed up with 0 V, 2.5 V, 5 V, or 7.5 V. Rather than accepting a arrangement of DACs actualize these set points, the 2.5 V advertence achievement of the distinct DAC can be fed through a capricious accretion amplifier network, which is summed to the achievement of the DAC by application a accretion amplifier agnate to the capricious advertence cartography (Figure 5).

[Figure 5 | Archetype of a capricious advertence topology.]

The capricious advertence cartography has some key advantages back compared to the quad-channel DAC approach. First, back there is alone one DAC, the accretion and annual errors will be the aforementioned throughout the absolute 18-bit alteration function, which translates into bigger INL than the quad-channel topology. In this capricious advertence topology, the stitch credibility affectation a hardly altered botheration than the quad-channel DAC topology. Back the aught cipher absurdity of anniversary DAC is summed in the quad-channel topology, the stitch credibility accept low cogwheel breadth (DNL). However, in the capricious advertence cartography the aught cipher absurdity and annual absurdity will annual the DNL to about-face as apparent in Figure 6a.

[Figure 6 | Capricious advertence cartography alteration action (a, top), and capricious advertence cartography calibrated alteration action (b, bottom).]

Figure 6b illustrates the after-effects of an algorithm acclimated to calibrate the system, and the capacity of that arrangement are discussed aing (Note that if the DAC is calibrated to accomplish alone in its beeline region, the all-embracing arrangement will not achievement a abounding 10 V; rather, simulations advance the all-encompassing achievement will be about 9.88 V).

Transfer switch - Wikipedia - transfer switch diagram

Transfer switch – Wikipedia – transfer switch diagram | transfer switch diagram

While the capricious advertence cartography has a college cardinal of accessories per lath than the quad-channel DAC topology, the capricious advertence has a lower amount per lath due to the amount accumulation associated with application a single-channel against a quad-channel DAC.

Variable advertence topology

The brief simulations throughout this commodity allegorize the allowances of calibrating the arrangement such that the DACs alone accomplish in their corresponding beeline regions. Best DAC abstracts bedding accord the blueprint for about accurateness (also accepted as INL) through codes 485d and 64714d, or 0 x 01E5 and 0 x FCCA, which is about the DAC’s best beeline operating region. To access the absolute cardinal of codes accessible in the all-embracing system, 0 x FCFF is still in a adequately authentic operating region, so this will be the best cipher acclimated in this example.

In an ideal DAC, the achievement voltage at cipher 0 x FCFF is about 2.4707 V. For this reason, the advertence of the capricious advertence cartography is anesthetized through a resistor divider, which reduces the voltage to 2.46 V. If the about-face is bankrupt such that the 2.46 V advertence is summed with the achievement of the DAC and the DAC’s cipher is set to 0 x 0119 (or about 0.0107 V) again the DNL of this footfall should be beneath than or according to 1 atomic cogent bit (LSB). The argumentation follows for the stitch credibility at about 5 V and 7.5 V as well.

Of course, the absolute apple DAC may accept an absurdity in either the absolute or abrogating administration at these points. Therefore, if the DNL is still unacceptable, you can use Equation 3 to acquisition a new estimated arrangement code. Accretion is the accretion of the capricious advertence ambit that will accomplish the aing voltage range, and MAX refers to the best cipher acclimated to set the max voltage achievement of the DAC (in this case 0 x FCFF).

Calibration Code= (CDACMAX 2.46 V*Gain-1)-(2.46 V*Gain)2.5 V216 (Equation 3)

13 Phase Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram - Wire Data Schema • - transfer switch diagram

13 Phase Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram – Wire Data Schema • – transfer switch diagram | transfer switch diagram

Note that Equation 3 does not booty accretion absurdity into annual back artful the arrangement code. For this reason, the DNL may be beyond than 1 LSB. If this is the case, the estimated DNL can be affected by application Equation 4, again adding the DNL from the aboriginal estimated arrangement cipher to access a new arrangement code. This action may charge to be again depending on the adequate DNL of the design.

DNL= (VDACCalibration Cipher {2.46 V*Gain})-(VDACMAX 2.46 V*Gain-1)2.5 V216 (Equation 4)

Assuming the arrangement has a microcontroller with an chip ADC to ascendancy the SPI bus and switches, the on-board ADC can be leveraged so that the microcontroller can automatically calibrate the system.

Conclusion

The two topologies discussed acquiesce designers to accomplish an 18-bit alteration action from 0 to 10 V application added cost-effective 16-bit DACs, while still advancement a low DNL at anniversary stitch point and monotonicity throughout the ambit of codes.

Jonathan T. Key is an Applications Engineer in the Attention Digital-to-Analog Converters accumulation at Texas Instruments.

Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Free Webtor Me And ..

Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Free Webtor Me And .. | transfer switch diagram

Rahul Prakash is a Product Definer in the Attention Digital-to-Analog Converters accumulation at Texas Instruments.

Kunal Gandhi is a Product Marketing Engineer in the Attention Digital-to-Analog Converters accumulation at Texas Instruments.

Texas Instruments

www.ti.com

@txinstruments

LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/company-beta/1397

Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram – genset controller - transfer switch diagram

Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram – genset controller – transfer switch diagram | transfer switch diagram

Facebook: www.facebook.com/texasinstruments

Google : plus.google.com/u/0/ TexasInstruments

References

1. Kay, A. and Tim Green. Analog Engineer’s Pocket Reference, Texas Instruments, 2015

Ten Transfer Switch Diagram That Had Gone Way Too Far | Transfer Switch Diagram – transfer switch diagram
| Delightful to help my website, with this period I’ll provide you with about transfer switch diagram
.

Rv Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Fresh Asco Wiring ..

Rv Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram Fresh Asco Wiring .. | transfer switch diagram

 

Generator transfer switch wiring diagram | Home Stuff | Pinterest ..

Generator transfer switch wiring diagram | Home Stuff | Pinterest .. | transfer switch diagram

Manual Generator Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram - starfm

Manual Generator Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram – starfm | transfer switch diagram

Manual Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram And Generac For Connecting The ..

Manual Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram And Generac For Connecting The .. | transfer switch diagram

Residential Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram - Enthusiast ..

Residential Automatic Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram – Enthusiast .. | transfer switch diagram

13 Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram - Schematics Wiring Diagrams • - transfer switch diagram

13 Transfer Switch Wiring Diagram – Schematics Wiring Diagrams • – transfer switch diagram | transfer switch diagram

Diagram Information © 2018 Frontier Theme