This commodity describes capacity about a new architectonics of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect accomplishing which is categorized as “Semi-Hosted Service” arrangement in “Deployment and Hosting Patterns in OAuth”.
In the pattern, a frontend server (an allotment server and an OpenID provider) utilizes a backend account which provides APIs to advice the frontend server apparatus OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect. Authlete is a real-world archetype of such backend services. The amount beneath illustrates the accord amid a frontend server and a backend account (Authlete).
The primary advantage of this architectonics is in that the backend account can focus on implementing OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect afterwards caring about added apparatus such as character management, user authentication, login affair management, API administration and artifice detection. And, consequently, it leads to accession aloft advantage which enables the backend account (implementation of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect) to be accumulated with any band-aid of added apparatus and appropriately gives adaptability to frontend server implementations.
Although RFC 6749 (The OAuth 2.0 Allotment Framework) absolutely states as follows:
, best implementations accommodate both user affidavit and allotment combinedly as a amalgamation band-aid because user affidavit is included as a footfall in allotment action as illustrated beneath (see “3. Affidavit and Authorization” in “Full-Scratch Implementor of OAuth and OpenID Connect Talks About Findings” for details). To put the added way around, rather, it’s because it is difficult to abstracted user affidavit from OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect implementation.
Such amalgamation solutions generally action mechanisms to adapt user affidavit action (e.g. editable allotment page, accepted interface over basal character administration system, hooks in folio transitions). However, this admission makes it difficult to acquire a new user affidavit apparatus whose breeze is appreciably altered from the ones affected by the amalgamation solutions.
On the added hand, Authlete has adopted the semi-hosted account arrangement in adjustment to annihilate the charge itself to abstruse the way of user authentication. Authlete requires alone a aftereffect of user affidavit and does not affliction about how the aftereffect has been obtained. Consequently, Authlete can be accumulated with any user affidavit solution.
You may admiration what is a aftereffect of user authentication. Regardless of how a user is accurate (e.g. by ID and password, fingerprint, iris, accouterments token, accidental table, and whatever), from a abstruse point of view, user affidavit is a action to analyze a altered user identifier. That is, a aftereffect of user affidavit is a user ID.
The amount beneath is a diagram of the Allotment Cipher Breeze authentic in “4.1. Allotment Cipher Grant” in RFC 6749. (You can acquisition the aforementioned amount in “Diagrams And Movies Of All The OAuth 2.0 Flows”.)
The applicant appliance makes an allotment appeal in the footfall (2), and the allotment server allotment an allotment cipher in the footfall (6). User affidavit is performed in amid (2) and (6). User authentication, however, may be bare if the user has already been authenticated. In either case, the allotment server has to admission the user ID afore arising an allotment cipher because the user ID has to be associated with the allotment code.
To advance out user affidavit absolutely from the accomplishing of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect, Authlete has disconnected the allotment breeze into the afterward three parts:
(a) Processing the allotment request
(b) Authenticating the user
(c) Making the allotment response
and provides two abstracted APIs for (a) and (c) only. Authlete does annihilation for (b) and leaves it to customers.
The point is in that the API for (c) requires a aftereffect of (b). In added words, API callers charge canyon a altered user identifier to the API.
The amount beneath illustrates how a frontend server and a backend account (Authlete) assignment together. You can see that user affidavit is performed at the frontend server in the footfall (11) and that the user ID is anesthetized to an Authlete’s API (/api/auth/authorization/issue) in the footfall (12).
Just for references.
The advance of the API abridgement has admiring abounding companies into the bazaar of API management. Best solutions in the bazaar accommodate some mechanisms to assure APIs, including aegis by OAuth 2.0 admission tokens.
Instead of accumulation functionality of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect in a complicated manner, some API administration solutions acquire absitively to agent the functionality to alien third-party solutions.
One archetype is AWS API Gateway. It provides a apparatus to agent validation of agent tokens (such as OAuth 2.0 tokens) presented by applicant applications to an alien authorizer. The amount beneath excerpted from “Enable Amazon API Gateway Custom Authorization” illustrates the mechanism.
“Lambda Auth function” at the top position in the amount is an authorizer. The accomplishing of the action receives agent tokens from API Gateway, validates them, and allotment the aftereffect of the validation to API Gateway. Based on the result, API Gateway determines whether to acquire the appeal from the applicant or adios it.
The accomplishing of the action itself may in about-face agent the validation to an alien authorizer. The amount beneath is an archetype which uses Authlete as the alien authorizer. Abstruse capacity about this are accounting in “Amazon API Gateway AWS Lambda OAuth”.
IBM API Connect is accession example. It has OAuth implementation, but at the aforementioned time, it can agent validation of admission tokens to an alien allotment server if the server supports RFC 7662 (OAuth 2.0 Badge Introspection). Capacity are accounting in “Integrating third affair OAuth provider” (in IBM Knowledge Center).
Note for developers:
APIs congenital appliance IBM API Connect crave a custom HTTP header, X-IBM-Client-Id, in accession to Allotment attack which includes an admission badge in the way authentic in “2.1. Allotment Appeal Attack Field” in RFC 6750. The custom attack is appropriate alike if admission badge validation is delegated to a third-party allotment server.
The afterward is the command band excerpted from “Using the admission token” (in “Tutorial: Securing an API by appliance OAuth 2.0” in IBM Knowledge Center) (with added band break added for affectation purpose only).
A assertive aloft coffer in Japan has adopted IBM’s band-aid for its coffer API, and now X-IBM-Client-Id is a allotment of the bank’s official API blueprint (example).
Before an OpenID provider issues an ID token, it has to accredit the user. However, user affidavit may be skipped if the user has already logged in the server.
In the semi-hosted account pattern, login affair administration is handled by the frontend server (OpenID provider), and the backend account does annihilation for it. Because login affair administration is afar from OAuth and OpenID Connect implementation, developers can accept any band-aid for login affair administration (e.g. Apache Shiro) as they like.
java-oauth-server is a acceptable archetype that demonstrates login affair administration can be handled alone in the frontend server. The open-source software is an accomplishing of allotment server and OpenID provider accounting in Java. It uses Authlete as the backend service.
When we ran the OpenID Certification analysis for java-oauth-server for the aboriginal time, the analysis appear some errors accompanying to login affair management. We could break the errors by abacus login affair administration to java-oauth-server. The point is that we didn’t acquire to change any cipher of the backend account (Authlete) to break the errors. This has accepted login affair administration can be implemented in the frontend server apart of the backend service.
Authorization in the ambience of character administration and allotment in the ambience of OAuth are different. In the aloft context, allotment agency “who has what permissions”. In the closing context, allotment agency “who grants what permissions to whom”. They are altered but in some cases you acquire to handle both simultaneously. This catechism (“How to verify which assets anniversary user can admission with OAuth and OpenID Connect?”) and this acknowledgment in Stack Overflow appearance one of such use cases.
Some character administration solutions abutment allotment in the ambience of OAuth (which may accomplish bodies confused). However, the semi-hosted account arrangement removes the charge itself for character administration solutions to abutment OAuth.
Suppose there is a arrangement for music service. If we advance APIs of the arrangement with an allotment server which is deeply accumulated with character management, the arrangement will attending like the amount below. The allotment server holds both a user database and an allotment database.
If the aggregation active the music account expands its business and starts a healthcare account and a biking service, and if APIs of the new casework are congenital on top of the absolute system, the allotment server is aggregate as illustrated beneath alike admitting API servers are able independently.
Sharing an allotment server amid casework agency that scopes (permissions) and applicant applications of the casework are managed at one place. For example, a permission to actualize comedy lists (music service), a permission to accredit to the almanac of anatomy weight (healthcare service) and a permission to assets hotels (travel service) are managed at one place.
Because anniversary account usually has a altered development team, a altered schedule, a altered ambition for API acknowledgment and altered applicant applications, it is adorable to accomplish anniversary account acquire its own allotment server. At the aforementioned time, it is additionally adorable to allotment the user basin amid services. However, if an allotment server is deeply accumulated with character management, it is difficult to acquire assorted allotment servers for assorted casework which allotment the aforementioned user pool.
On the contrary, what if there exists an allotment server which is not angry to character management? If you acquire such an allotment server, you can body a arrangement area anniversary account has its own allotment server but shares the aforementioned user basin with added services. The semi-hosted account arrangement which acutely separates allotment from character administration enables you to acquire such a arrangement architecture.
Even if the architectonics area anniversary account can acquire its allotment server is beautiful, if it requires abounding man-hours to advance one allotment server, it is difficult to acquire the architecture. But, it is about accept to apprehend that implementations (such as Authlete) which by architectonics booty assorted allotment servers into appliance action a apparatus to calmly actualize and annul allotment server instances.
As an example, the amount beneath illustrates the accomplish to actualize a new instance of allotment server / OpenID provider in Authlete’s web animate (Service Buyer Console). Just three clicks. If it is accessible to actualize an allotment server instance like this, arrangement architects can accompany a bigger architectonics for their OAuth and OpenID Connect implementations.
Frontend servers are accepted to behave as authentic in the accepted specifications. On the added hand, backend casework in the semi-hosted account arrangement can architectonics their APIs advisedly afterwards any restraint.
The afterward sections appearance archetype extensions that backend casework may accommodate in adjustment to advice developers apparatus allotment servers and OpenID providers.
In some use cases, you may appetite to actualize admission tokens appliance a altered way than the accepted flows authentic in the blueprint (RFC 6749). Backend account may accommodate an API for that purpose.
Authlete’s /api/auth/token/create API is an example. By appliance the API, developers can actualize admission tokens afterwards user interaction.
The afterward is an extract from “5.1. Successful Response” in RFC 6749.
This shows a achievability that non-standard ambit such as example_parameter may be alternate back an admission badge is issued. However, there is no connected way to accessory approximate abstracts like example_parameter with an admission token.
Backend casework in the semi-hosted account arrangement can accommodate a apparatus to accessory approximate abstracts with an admission badge afterwards defective to add proprietary blueprint to frontend servers.
properties appeal constant of some Authlete APIs is an example. By casual an arrangement of key-value pairs via the appeal parameter, developers can accessory approximate abstracts with admission tokens.
The afterward is an archetype of /api/auth/authorization/issue API alarm with the backdrop appeal parameter.
In adjustment to accredit a user to abjure permissions accustomed to applicant applications, the account has to affectation applicant applications to which the user has accustomed permissions, let the user baddest applicant applications, and annul all the admission tokens issued to the called applicant applications by the user.
Some allotment server implementations may accommodate UI for the purpose. On the added hand, backend casework in the semi-hosted account arrangement would booty a altered admission – accommodate APIs instead of UI.
Developers can abutment the use case aloft by appliance the afterward Authlete APIs.
When a applicant appliance wants new permissions in accession to the ones it already has, it sends an allotment appeal to the allotment server again. As a acknowledgment to the request, the allotment server will acknowledgment an allotment folio which includes the account of permissions requested by the applicant application.
A simple accomplishing will account all the permissions in the allotment page. On the added hand, a convenient accomplishing may account the new permissions only.
To apparatus the convenient allotment page, the allotment server has to bethink sets of permissions accepted to applicant applications by users. It should be acclaimed that the annal of accepted permissions cannot be deleted alike afterwards all the associated admission tokens expire. Otherwise, permissions would be displayed to users afresh if an allotment appeal is fabricated afterwards all admission tokens expire.
Some allotment server implementations may accommodate UI for the purpose. On the added hand, backend casework in the semi-hosted account arrangement would booty a altered approach — provide APIs instead of UI.
Developers can abutment the use case aloft by appliance the afterward Authlete APIs. Note that these APIs assignment on committed servers alone (don’t assignment on the aggregate server, api.authlete.com).
This commodity explained a new architectonics that, instead of accouterment an allotment server and OpenID provider itself, provides abstruse apparatus as Web APIs with which developers can advance allotment servers and OpenID providers. This architectonics has been called “Semi-Hosted Account Pattern”.
This architectonics draws a bright band amid an accomplishing of OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect and added abstruse apparatus such as user affidavit and character management. I achievement developers who seek for bigger arrangement architectures will apprehension the advantages of the semi-hosted account pattern.
Thank you for account this continued commodity to the end.
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